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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Sustainable Perennial Crops Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #311426

Title: Cacao Flavor through Genetics – Anatomy of Fine Flavor

item SEQUINE, ED - Seguine Cacao Cocoa & Chocolate Advisors
item Meinhardt, Lyndel

Submitted to: The Manufacturing Confectioner
Publication Type: Popular Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/18/2014
Publication Date: 11/24/2014
Citation: Sequine, E., Meinhardt, L.W. 2014. Cacao Flavor through Genetics – Anatomy of Fine Flavor. The Manufacturing Confectioner. 94:25-30.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: This presentation will discuss the transcript analysis of Moniliophthora roreri infected pods, which revealed a total of 3009 differentially expressed transcripts among resistant and susceptible clones. Comparison of the tolerant and susceptible clones by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis indicated metabolic shifts in 152 different pathways. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression earlier in the infection process and at a low fungal load. While some genes were differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defense responses were induced at lower fungal load in the tolerant clones. Also in tolerant clones, we observed highly expressed elicitor-responsive genes, which indicate a rapid induction of defense genes. The jasmonic acid–ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defense pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, with an accompanying reduced in brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and a catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Hypersensitive responses, like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. New preliminary findings from the Phytophthora palmivora and P. megakarya genomes and from the VSD genomic analysis will also be discussed