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Title: Physico-chemical evaluation of Dovyalis spp

item Ayala Silva, Tomas
item SALAS, ANDREA - Florida International University
item GUBBUK, HAMIDE - Akdeniz University
item Reed, Stewart
item Winterstein, Michael - Mikey
item LEDESMA, NORIS - Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden

Submitted to: Florida State Horticulture Society and Citrus Industry
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/20/2014
Publication Date: 7/10/2015
Citation: Ayala Silva, T., Salas, A., Gubbuk, H., Reed, S.T., Winterstein, M.C., Ledesma, N. 2015. Physico-chemical evaluation of Dovyalis spp. Florida State Horticulture Society and Citrus Industry.Proceedings 2014.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The purpose of this research was to establish physico-chemical characterization of dovyalis hybrid fruits (MIA 25359). Samples of 30 fruits were characterized by evaluation of fruit and seed weight, length and width, percentage and number of seeds per fruit, peel and pulp percentage, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS/TA, fresh/dry weight ratio and maturity index. Dovyalis fruit showed good physical quality for commercial purposes with an average of 90.5% pulp; 9.0 % skin and 1% seed. Sugar content (TSS) ranged from 14.34 to 16.28; pH 2.44 to 3.63 and TA of 3.85 to 4.76 %. Fruit color values for the luminosity (L) of Dovyalis accession (MIA 25359) ranged from 33.06 to 43.59. The values for a* and b* ranged from 15.50 to 22.16 and 10.0 to 27.28 respectively. Fresh/dry weight ratio ranged from 0.17 to 0.20 and maturity index from 3.22 to 4.03. The genus Dovyalis belongs to the Salicaceae (formerly Flacourtiaceae) family. This genus is composed of 11 species including Dovyalis abyssinica, known as Aberia abyssinica or Mukambua is native to Africa (Kenya to Malawi); Dovyalis caffra, known as Kei-apple, or ketembilla native to South Africa (Morton, 1987; Lorenzi et al., 2006; Ortwa et al., 2009) and Dovyalis hebecarpa, known as Ceylon gooseberry, or ketembila, indigenous to India and Sri Lanka,. Dovyalia abyssinica A. Rich. Also know as African gooseberry is a species Native to Africa that has attracted very little attention until recently in southern Florida. The bush grows about 3.5 meters high and is not as spiny as the Kei-apple (Morton, 1987, Kiamba et al., 2009). The medium green leaves are 5.11-7.6 cm in length. The fruits average one inch (2.54 cm) in diameter and are apricot colored when ripe. The thin, tough skin may be readily peeled from the ripe fruit. The juicy flesh is apricot colored and faintly resembles the apricot in flavor. The ripe fruit makes a very tasty jelly and fruit punch (Sturrock, 1959). Dovyalis caffra, known as Kei-apple, or ketembilla is native to South Africa. The fruit is fleshy, yellow to orange, spherical in form, succulent and highly acidic (Ortwa et al., 2009). Dovyalis caffra is a shrub or small evergreen tree, usually 3-5 m in height but sometimes reaching 8 m. Bark is grey, smooth on young branchlets but fissured and flaky to corky on old branches and stems. Young branches are heavily armed with long (40-70 mm) spines, but stem with few spines. Crown much branched. Root system is not aggressive. The harvest time is indicated by changes in color from green to yellow/orange and decreasing thickness (Orwa et al., 2009). Dovyalis hebecarpa Warb. (Ceylon gooseberry) is native to India and Ceylon. Like the Kei-apple, it becomes a tree under tropical conditions. In southern Florida, it becomes a large spreading shrub with over-extended branching becoming pendulous when in fruit. The young leaves are pale green and velvety to the touch, becoming smooth and tough with full development. The Ceylon gooseberry is much more productive than the Kei-apple, and there are seldom spines on the fruiting branchlets, especially on grafted plants. The fruits are round, about 1.0-3.0 cm in diameter, and slightly flattened at the flower end. The skin is velvety and of a dark maroon color when ripe (Sturrock 1959; Morton 1987). Plants grown from seed will be male or female but they cannot be distinguished by growth or leaf characteristics and must be grown to fruiting age to determine the sex. Seedling plants are also very spiny. Grafted plants are more desirable, and for commercial plantings, a few male plants should be mixed throughout the planting of female plants for better setting of fruit. For homeyard plantings, this is not necessary (Da Silva et al., 2009). There are now some selections of better quality fruits, having less acid and better flavor (Lucena Cavalcante and Geraldo Mart