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Title: Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research

item SMITH, S - National Aeronautics And Space Administration (NASA) - Johnson Space Center
item ABRAMS, S - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item DAVIS-STREET, J - Chevron Corporation
item HEER, M - University Of Bonn
item O'BRIEN, K - Cornell University
item WASTNEY, M - Metabolic Modeling Services
item ZWART, S - Universities Space Research Associaton

Submitted to: Annual Review of Nutrition
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/2/2014
Publication Date: 7/18/2014
Citation: Smith, S.M., Abrams, S.A., Davis-Street, J.E., Heer, M., O'Brien, K.O., Wastney, M.E., Zwart, S.R. 2014. Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research. Annual Review of Nutrition. 34:377-400.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and bone mineral during space flight, which alters the endocrine regulation of calcium metabolism. Physical, pharmacologic, and nutritional means have been used to counteract these changes. In 2012, heavy resistance exercise plus good nutritional and vitamin D status were demonstrated to reduce loss of bone mineral density on long-duration International Space Station missions. Uncertainty continues to exist, however, as to whether the bone is as strong after flight as it was before flight and whether nutritional and exercise prescriptions can be optimized during space flight. Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth.