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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Virus and Prion Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #305900

Title: Mucosal correlates of cross-protection for live-attenuated influenza virus vaccines in pigs

item Hughes, Holly
item Baker, Amy
item Brockmeier, Susan
item PEREZ, DANIEL - Virginia-Maryland Regional College Of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM)
item Loving, Crystal

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/2014
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Controlling swine influenza A virus (IAV) has become increasingly difficult with the emergence of novel reassorted strains and introduction of human seasonal IAV into pigs. In North American swine there are 6 antigenically distinct H1 subtypes currently circulating. Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines provide broader cross-protection than whole-inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines making LAIV a candidate for next-generation swine IAV vaccines. However, there is no standardized assay to predict cross-protection following LAIV vaccination. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum has long been the gold standard correlate of protection following WIV vaccination; however, LAIV does not elicit a robust serum HI Ig titer. Oral fluids (OF) have become a rapidly developing diagnostic specimen for a variety of animal pathogens. We evaluated nasal wash (NW) and OF samples for measuring cross-reactive Ig responses to a panel of H1 viruses following vaccination. Both NW and OF had detectable levels of IAV-specific Ig when measured by ELISA. NW and OF from LAIV vaccinated pigs had significant cross-reactive IgA titers. Furthermore, higher IgA endpoint titers in NW and OF were associated with reduced virus isolation following challenge with a heterologous IAV. Additionally OF samples from LAIV and WIV vaccinated pigs had measureable IgA and IgG which displayed IAV specific neutralization. These data suggest OF can serve as a sample for evaluating LAIV immunogenicity and predicting cross-protection.