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Title: Psychometrics of the preschooler physical activity parenting practices instrument among a Latino sample

item O'CONNOR, TERESIA - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item CERIN, ESTER - University Of Hong Kong
item HUGHES, SHERYL - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item ROBLES, JESSICA - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item Thompson, Deborah - Debbe
item MENDOZA, JASON - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item BARANOWSKI, TOM - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item LEE, REBECCA - University Of Washington Medical School

Submitted to: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/10/2014
Publication Date: 1/15/2014
Citation: O'Connor, T.M., Cerin, E., Hughes, S.O., Robles, J., Thompson, D.J., Mendoza, J.A., Baranowski, T., Lee, R. 2014. Psychometrics of the preschooler physical activity parenting practices instrument among a Latino sample. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 11:3.

Interpretive Summary: Obesity remains a public health concern, and Latino children are disproportionately affected. Physically active lifestyles can help prevent obesity. Among young children, parents serve as an important influence on children's behaviors, including their physical activity. Parents can both encourage and discourage their young child from being active. Few survey instruments exist that measure how parents of 3-5 year old children interact with their child regarding physical activity. In this paper, we describe the development and initial testing of a new survey instrument to measure Latino parents' physical activity parenting practices to encourage or discourage their 3-5 year old from being active. As a result of various testing, the resulting Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practice (PPAPP) instrument needs to be more extensively tested for its association with children's physical activity. This instrument potentially offers researchers an important new tool for assessing how Latino parents influence their preschool aged child to be physical active.

Technical Abstract: Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increase their PA. The objective was therefore to develop and assess the psychometrics of a new instrument: the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) among a Latino sample, to assess parenting practices used to encourage or discourage PA among preschool-aged children. We used a cross-sectional study of 240 Latino parents who reported the frequency of using PA parenting practices. 95% of respondents were mothers; 42% had more than a high school education. Child mean age was 4.5 (+/-0.9) years (52% male). Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20%, 2 weeks later. We assessed the fit of a priori models using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In a separate sub-sample (35%), preschool-aged children wore accelerometers to assess associations with their PA and PPAPP subscales. The a-priori models showed poor fit to the data. A modified factor structure for encouraging PPAPP had one multiple-item scale: engagement (15 items), and two single-items (have outdoor toys; not enroll in sport-reverse coded). The final factor structure for discouraging PPAPP had 4 subscales: promote inactive transport (3 items), promote screen time (3 items), psychological control (4 items) and restricting for safety (4 items). Test-retest reliability (ICC) for the two scales ranged from 0.56-0.85. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.5-0.9. Several sub-factors correlated in the expected direction with children’s objectively measured PA. The final models for encouraging and discouraging PPAPP had moderate to good fit, with moderate to excellent test-retest reliabilities. The PPAPP should be further evaluated to better assess its associations with children's PA and offers a new tool for measuring PPAPP among Latino families with preschool-aged children.