|LEE, DOO-HYUNG - Rutgers University|
|PARK, CHANG-GYU - National Academy Of Agricultural Science|
|SEO, BOYUN - National Academy Of Agricultural Science|
|BOITEAU, GILLES - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada|
|VINCENT, CHARLES - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada|
Submitted to: Florida Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2014
Publication Date: 9/1/2014
Citation: Lee, D., Park, C., Seo, B., Boiteau, G., Vincent, C., Leskey, T.C. 2014. Detectability of Halyomorpha Halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by portable harmonic radar in agricultural landscapes. Florida Entomologist. 97(3):1131-1138.
Interpretive Summary: Over the past 40 years, radar techniques have continuously improved and provided a new tool to study dispersal capacity and behavior of small animals including arthropods. In particular, the development of harmonic radar systems for entomological research allows for continuous tracking of individual insects by attaching small, light-weight radar tags (approximately 3 mg). In this study, we developed methods to improve the durability of harmonic radar tags to use the new technique for invasive brown marmorated stink bug. In addition, we established the efficacy of a portable harmonic radar system at detecting radar-tagged stink bugs in various structures and in different landscapes. The durability of radar tags was significantly improved by reinforcing the solder paste bond between radar transponder and radar wire with cyanoacrylate glue. The success rates of locating radar-tagged stink bug ranged between 87-100 percent across structures and landscapes present in agro-ecosystems. The results of this study provide a basis for researchers to reliably and effectively use the radar system in the field to study dispersal ecology of brown marmorated stink bug.
Technical Abstract: Harmonic radar has provided a new approach to individually track movement of small insects under field conditions. In a series of studies, we developed methods to improve durability of harmonic radar tags attached to insects and established the efficacy of a portable harmonic radar system at detecting adult Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on various structures and in different landscapes. This baseline information will facilitate further use of the system and aid in development of radar-driven studies with the target insect. We found that the durability of radar tag can be improved significantly over previously described methods by reinforcing the adhesive bond between radar transponder and radar wire with cyanoacrylate glue. This new method did not affect detectability of radar tags and significantly increased the durability of radar tag against random mechanical impacts inflicted on the insect and tag in a series of coupled laboratory and field trials. The success rates of locating radar-tagged H. halys were compared among different landscapes including a mowed grass-covered plot (250 m squared), mature peach tree plot (50 m squared), and an unmanaged hedgerow (50 m squared). The success rates of locating H. halys were greater than 90 percent in all landscapes tested. There was no significant difference in the search time needed to locate tagged adults. In general, it took less than 2 min to detect and recover H. halys in each experimental habitat. The success rates of locating radar-tagged H. halys were also compared among different locations within mature fruit trees. There was no significant difference in the success rates of locating insects concealed on the inner third (87 percent) versus the outer third of the host tree canopy (100 percent). However, a significantly longer period of time was required to locate H. halys on the inner part (372 sec plus or minus 95 SE) compared with the outer part of the canopy (148 sec plus or minus 39 SE). When H. halys were concealed on lower, middle, and upper thirds of the outer tree canopy, the success rates of locating tagged adults were consistently 95 percent adults. The results of this study provide a basis for researchers to reliably use the radar system in the field to study dispersal biology of H. halys.