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Title: Sugarcane Genotype Selection on Muck and Sand Soils in Florida — a Case for Dedicated Environments

item McCord, Per
item DEL BLANCO, ISABEL - University Of California Agriculture And Natural Resources (UCANR)
item MILLIGAN, SCOTT - Monsanto Biotechnology
item Glaz, Barry
item GLYNN, NEIL - Syngenta Seeds, Inc
item DAVIDSON, R - Florida Sugarcane League
item IREY, MIKE - Us Sugar Corporation

Submitted to: American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2014
Publication Date: 1/2/2014
Citation: Mccord, P.H., Del Blanco, I., Milligan, S., Glaz, B.S., Glynn, N.C., Davidson, R.W., Irey, M. 2014. Sugarcane Genotype Selection on Muck and Sand Soils in Florida — a Case for Dedicated Environments. American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. 34:28-32.

Interpretive Summary: In Florida, it has been difficult to develop new sugarcane varieties for sandy soils. This may be because the sugarcane breeding program conducts the most intensive screening on soils with high organic matter, resulting in the development of new varieties that are most adapted to the organic soils. The objective of this study was to investigate if varieties are more likely to be adapted to a particular soil type, which would mean conducting intensive screening on sandy soils as well. Two groups of potential varieties, comprising over 1350 unique types, were evaluated for cane and sugar yield on both organic and sand soils. On average, 25.3% of the varieties in the top 10% on one soil type were also rated in the top 10% on the other soil type. This result indicates that there are certain varieties that are adapted to both soil types, but this is uncommon; we recommend evaluating larger numbers of sugarcane clones specifically on sandy soils, in order to identify more varieties that will do well on this soil type.

Technical Abstract: Traditionally, the cooperative sugarcane breeding program at Canal Point, Florida has selected genotypes exclusively on muck soils in the early to middle stages of the program, resulting in the possibility that many genotypes adapted to sand soils are discarded. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of genotype × soil interaction on muck and sand soils, amongst genotypes in the second clonal selection stage. A significant genotype × soil interaction for yield traits would warrant the selection of genotypes on sand soils at earlier stages. Two series (groups) of genotypes were planted on a muck soil at Canal Point, and on a sand soil near Clewiston. Limited seedcane necessitated planting each series in different years at different sites, resulting in a confounding of soil with year. Genotypes were not replicated aside from check cultivars and a small subset of genotypes. All genotypes were analyzed for cane and sugar yield traits. Genotype x soil (G × S) and genotype x year (G × Y) interactions were modeled using the check cultivars. The results from the checks suggested that significant genotype × environment (G ×E) interactions amongst the new genotypes are due more to G × S than G ×Y. Significant G × E interactions were detected amongst the replicated new genotypes for six traits in the 2006 series, and four traits in the 2007 series. For all new genotypes, the Spearman (rank) correlation was calculated for each trait across locations. All correlations were statistically significant, but the values were low (0.18 to 0.40). The exception was stalk weight, which was moderately correlated (0.49) between locations in both series. In practice, only one clone selected at both locations, CP06-2042, advanced to the final stage of selection. Our results suggest the breeding program should begin genotype selection on sand soils at earlier stages in order to increase the likelihood of identifying superior cultivars.