Submitted to: Journal of Insect Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/10/2015
Publication Date: 4/5/2015
Citation: Cottrell, T.E., Tillman, P.G. 2015. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes. Journal of Insect Science. doi: 10.1093/jisesa/iev017.
Interpretive Summary: Little is known regarding the spatial distribution of the green stink bug (an economic pest of cotton) in corn fields of the southeastern U.S. It is likely that the proximity of adjacent cotton and/or peanut fields affects its distribution in corn fields. Our objective was to examine where and when the green stink bug occurred in corn as related to adjacent cotton and peanut fields and also what nearby non-crop host plants this pest may be feeding on. At different locations, these crops were examined weekly during the growing season for green stink bugs documenting where they occurred in crop fields and borders and when they were in those fields and borders. From our sampling data, we conclude that corn and peanut are not good host plants for the green stink bug and do not serve as sources for this stink bug. Non-crop host plants that the green stink bug appeared to use included: black cherry, elderberry, mimosa, unmanaged pecan, and beggarweed. These plants were common in borders around crop fields. Because of when the green stink bug occurred in on non-crop host plants and the where the green stink bug eventually entered the crops, these non-crop host plants contribute to green stink bugs moving to row crops. However, we noted that the height of corn plants actually served to inhibit movement of the green stink bug through fields of corn to reach the preferred cotton. In contrast, the green stink bug did fly over low-growing peanuts in fields to reach the preferred cotton. Even though more green stink bugs were associated with cotton, they still entered cotton by colonizing edges of cotton fields and gradually moving to the field interior later in the season. In conclusion, understanding the eco-biology of C. hilaris in different crops is essential for implementing management strategies for this pest.
Technical Abstract: The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton across the southeastern U.S., however, little is known concerning its spatial distribution in corn fields of this region. It is likely that the proximity of other adjacent row crops, i.e., cotton and/or peanut, affects its distribution in corn fields. Thus, the objective of this 5-yr on-farm study was to examine the spatial distribution and dispersal of C. hilaris in farmscapes comprised of corn and cotton or peanut and corn near both peanut and cotton. In each farmscape, each crop was examined weekly for C. hilaris during the growing season. Corn and peanut were not significant sources of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes. Four C. hilaris appeared in only 21.4% of all corn fields, and six C. hilaris occurred in 71.4% of all peanut fields. Non-crop host plants of C. hilaris, i.e., black cherry, elderberry, mimosa, uncultivated pecan, and beggarweed, grew in field borders around crops in these farmscapes. The seasonal occurrence of C. hilaris in these host plants and position of host plants in habitats adjoining crops, together with spatial distribution of C. hilaris in sampled crops and weekly captures of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone traps, strongly suggest that these non-crop host plants were sources of C. hilaris dispersing into corn, peanut, and cotton. In corn, field edges served as barriers to dispersal of C. hilaris into the crop. In peanut, though, this stink bug appeared to fly freely across the low canopy of the crop. Even though C. hilaris density was low in corn and peanut, it still colonized cotton field edges in corn farmscapes. This stink bug entered cotton from non-crop plants, and occasionally from peanut, via the interface and other field edges. In cotton, edge effects resulted in aggregation of C. hilaris at field edges, especially at crop-to-crop interfaces. In conclusion, understanding the eco-biology of C. hilaris in farmscapes is essential for designing management strategies for this pest.