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Title: 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults

item O'NEIL, CAROL - LSU Agcenter
item NICKLAS, THERESA - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item RAMPERSUAD, GAIL - University Of Florida
item FULGONI III, VICTOR - Nutrition Impact, Llc

Submitted to: Open Nutrition Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/30/2012
Publication Date: 12/12/2012
Citation: O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Rampersuad, G.C., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2012. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults. Open Nutrition Journal. 11:107.

Interpretive Summary: Consumption of 100% fruit juice has been associated with higher intakes of key nutrients, including vitamins C and B-6, folate, thiamin, magnesium, and potassium, as well as better diet quality, and increased intake of total and whole fruit consumption in children and adults as compared to those that do not consume 100% fruit juice. There have been concerns about overweight/obesity in consumers of 100% fruit juice, especially children. Most studies have been conducted in children and have not shown a relationship between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight. Cross-sectional studies that have been conducted in adults have shown that consumption of 100% fruit juice has been inversely associated with body mass index and obesity; however, the longitudinal Nurses' Health Study II showed that 100% fruit juice consumption was positively associated with weight gain, and consumption of 100% orange juice with a 21% lower risk of obesity in men and women. Consumption of 100% orange juice was associated with better diet quality and an increased prevalence of meeting the estimated average requirement for key nutrients and other biomarkers of positive health outcomes, including lower total cholesterol and LDL levels. Consumers of 100% orange juice had lower mean BMI and a decreased risk of obesity. In addition, males had a decreased risk of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that 100% orange juice consumption should be encouraged as a component of a healthy diet to help individuals meet nutrient and fruit intake recommendations.

Technical Abstract: Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% orange juice consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of adults. Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement or above the Adequate Intake were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher percentage of the population meeting the estimated average requirement for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and magnesium. Consumers were also more likely to be above the adequate intake for potassium. Healthy Eating Index-2005 was significantly higher in consumers. Consumers also had higher intakes of total fruit, fruit juice, whole fruit, and whole grain. Consumers had a lower body mass index, total cholesterol levels, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Finally, compared to non-consumers of 100% OJ, consumers were 21% less likely to be obese, and male consumers were 36% less likely to have metabolic syndrome. The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.