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Title: Acaricide Resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: Impact on Agro-Biosecurity and Cattle Trade between Mexico and the United States of America

item Perez De Leon, Adalberto - Beto
item RODRIGUEZ VIVAS, ROGER - Autonomous University Of Yucatan
item Guerrero, Felicito
item GARCIA VAZQUEZ, ZEFERINO - Instituto Nacional De Investigaciones Forestales Y Agropecuarias (INIFAP)
item Temeyer, Kevin
item DOMINGUEZ GARCIA, DELIA INES - Universidad Autónoma De Guerrero
item Li, Andrew
item Miller, Robert
item ROSARIO CRUZ, RODRIGO - Instituto Nacional De Investigaciones Forestales Y Agropecuarias (INIFAP)

Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/10/2013
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Several types of nematodes are pathogens (entomopathogenic) that infect a wide range of insects in the laboratory, making it appear that they would be good natural control agents of insect pests. But in the field they infect only soil dwelling insects and a few other soil invertebrates. A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes was conducted on the coast of the State of Colima, Mexico, to determine their occurrence, recovery frequency, and the redominant plant species from disturbed, cultivated habitats as well as in undisturbed habitats. Nineteen soil samples were collected from three municipalities; seven were from undisturbed habitats and 12 from disturbed habitats (mostly cultivated fruit crops, grasses and grain crops). Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 14 of the 19 soil samples (73.7%). Thirteen different types of entomopathogenic nematodes were identified; 12 were from the group known as steinernematid (85.7%) and one from the group known as heterorhabditid (7.1%). Nematodes were recovered from all the three municipalities sampled. Only steinernematid nematodes were recovered from all three municipalities; heterorhabditid nematodes were recovered from the municipalities of Armería and Ixtlahuacán. Only steinernematid nematodes were recovered from undisturbed habitats. Most of the nematodes were recovered from disturbed habitats. Our results suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes are very adaptable to cultivated or disturbed soils.

Technical Abstract: Animal health issues are important aspects of the bilateral partnership between Mexico and the United States of America (U.S.). Because the U.S. is free of the cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, and bovine babesiosis, the widespread distribution of cattle fever ticks in Mexico is a concern addressed in the regulations for the importation of Mexican cattle. On average, 1 million cattle were imported by the U.S. from Mexico between 1989 and 2009. Field populations of R. microplus that are resistant to most of the commercially available acaricides in Mexico represent an agro-biosecurity concern for the U.S. livestock industry. An update on acaricide resistance research in Mexico and the U.S. is presented here. The risk of multiple acaricide resistance to the binational livestock trade enterprise is documented. Efforts to mitigate the economic impact of cattle fever ticks resistant to multiple classes of acaricides on livestock agroecosystems are discussed.