|Coyne, Clarice - Clare|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/7/2013
Publication Date: 7/25/2013
Citation: Smýkal, P., Coyne, C.J., Redden, R., Maxted, N. 2013. Pea (Pisum sp.) genetic resources, its analysis and exploration. In: Plant Germplasm Introduction and Testing. London, United Kingdom: Elsevier Insights. p. 157-180. Interpretive Summary: Of the all legumes, the pea has its prominent place in plant biology and particularly in genetics, owing to work of J.G. Mendel (1866). Although not being fully recognized and supported internationally, pea remains today one of the most important temperate pulses, fodder and vegetable crops and currently ranks second only to common bean as the most widely grown grain legume in the world with primary production in temperate regions and global production of 10.4 M tonnes in 2009 (FAOSTAT 2010). Pea seeds are rich in protein (23-25%), slowly digestible starch (50%), soluble sugars (5%), fibre, minerals and vitamins. In spite of being small genus with two to three recognized species, pea (Pisum sp.) is remarkably diverse and existing germplasm collections with approximately 90 thousands accessions capture relatively well genetic diversity of cultivated pea, yet substantially less in case of wild material. The genetic diversity of major collections has been revealed by molecular markers and led to formulation of several core collections, which facilitate the further phenotypic screens and agronomic evaluation. This book chapter summarizes current genomic knowledge and technologies can substantially facilitate the mining of genetic diversity and its incorporation in desired new cultivars for pea production.
Technical Abstract: Pea is important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. Originated and domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean, it formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a small genus with two or three species, it is very diverse and structured, reflecting taxonomy, eco-geography and breeding gene pools. This diversity has been preserved in collections totalling 90 thousand accessions. Core collections have been formed, facilitating phenotypic and agronomic evaluations. However, only 3% of ex situ collections are wild Pisum sp., with substantially larger diversity. The genomic resources allow initiation of association mapping, linking genetic diversity with trait manifestation. So far, only a small part of wild relative gene pools have been exploited in breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses or novel agronomical traits. Current genomic knowledge and technologies can facilitate the allele mining for novel traits and incorporation from wild Pisum sp. into elite domestic backgrounds.