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Title: The YopJ superfamily of type III efforts in plant-associated bacteria

item Lewis, Jennifer
item LEE, A - University Of Toronto
item MA, W - University Of California
item ZHOU, H - University Of California
item GUTTMAN, D - University Of Toronto
item DESVEAUX, D - University Of Toronto

Submitted to: Molecular Plant Pathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/24/2011
Publication Date: 12/20/2011
Citation: Lewis, J.D., Lee, A.H., Ma, W.B., Zhou, H., Guttman, D.S., Desveaux, D. 2011. The YopJ superfamily of type III efforts in plant-associated bacteria. Molecular Plant Pathology. 12(9):928-937.

Interpretive Summary: Bacterial diseases cause substantial crop losses. Bacteria use the type III secretion system to inject type III secreted effectors into plants. Type III effector proteins are a primary mechanism for causing disease, as they can suppress defense responses in the plant. The YopJ superfamily of type III effector proteins is evolutionarily conserved and found in both animal and plant pathogens. We briefly review the literature on YopJ, and synthesize the literature on members of the YopJ superfamily in plant-associated bacteria. We discuss the functions of each homolog, their similarities and their differences. Analysis of the YopJ superfamily provides a unique opportunity to understand type III effector function within its evolutionary context.

Technical Abstract: Bacterial pathogens employ the type III secretion system to secrete and translocate effector proteins into their hosts. The primary function of these effector proteins is believed to be the suppression of host defense responses or innate immunity. However, some effector proteins may be recognized by the host and consequently trigger a targeted immune response. The YopJ/HopZ/AvrRxv family of bacterial effector proteins is a widely distributed and evolutionarily diverse family, found in both animal and plant pathogens, as well as plant symbionts. How can an effector family effectively promote the virulence of pathogens on hosts from two separate kingdoms? Our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the YopJ superfamily members provides an excellent opportunity to address this question and to investigate the functions and virulence strategies of a diverse type III effector family in animal and plant hosts. In this work, we briefly review the literature on YopJ, the archetypal member from Yersinia pestis, and discuss members of the superfamily in species of Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Rhizobium. We review the molecular and cellular functions, if known, of the YopJ homologs in plants, and highlight the diversity of responses in different plant species, with a particular focus on the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ family. The YopJ superfamily provides an excellent foundation for the study of effector diversification in the context of wide-ranging, co-evolutionary interactions.