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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Virus and Prion Research

Title: Review of influenza A virus in swine worldwide: a call for increased surveillance and research

item Vincent, Amy
item Donis, Ruben
item Webby, Richard
item Swenson, Sabrina
item Gramer, Marie
item Pasick, John
item Ciacci Zanella, Janice
item Pereda, Ariel
item Van Reeth, Kristien
item Brown, Ian
item Lewis, Nicola
item Peiris, Malik
item Saito, Takehiko
item Wong, Frank
item Parchariyanon, Sujira
item Chen, Hualan
item Nguyen, Tung
item Dauphin, Gwenaelle
item Claes, Filip
item Mumford, Elizabeth
item Hamilton, Keith
item Pavade, Gounalan
item Awada, Lina

Submitted to: Zoonoses and Public Health
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/13/2013
Publication Date: 4/1/2014
Citation: Vincent, A., Awada, L., Brown, I., Chen, H., Claes, F., Dauphin, G., Donis, R., Culhane, M., Hamilton, K., Lewis, N., Mumford, E., Nguyen, T., Parchariyanon, S., Pasick, J., Pavade, G., Pereda, A., Peiris, M., Saito, T., Swenson, S., Van Reeth, K., Webby, R., Wong, F., Ciacci-Zanella, J. 2014. Review of influenza A virus in swine worldwide: a call for increased surveillance and research. Zoonoses and Public Health. 61(1):4-17.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAV) circulating in pigs and other non-human mammals has been chronically underfunded and virtually nonexistent in many areas of the world. This deficit continues in spite of our knowledge that influenza is a disease shared between humans and pigs since at least the 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic. In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America and demonstrated in a public forum the paucity of data on influenza viruses in swine. Scrutiny regarding this surveillance gap continues. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to consist of a combination of genes from IAV of North American and Eurasian swine-lineages that had never before been identified in swine or other species. The emergent H1N1 quickly spread in the human population and the outbreak reached pandemic phase 6 as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on June 11, 2009. Although the eight gene segments of the novel virus are similar to available sequences of corresponding genes from swine IAV from North America and Eurasia, no closely related ancestral IAV with this gene combination had been previously identified in North America or elsewhere in the world. Although there have been approximately 100 reported events of sporadic transmission of swine adapted IAV to humans since the Spanish flu pandemic, swine IAV of the H1N1 subtype have been historically distinct from avian and other mammalian H1N1 influenza viruses in qualities such as serologic cross-reactivity, nucleotide sequence and/or host specificity. (The exception to this tendency for host specificity of the swine IAV is the susceptibility of domestic turkeys to the triple reassortant viruses of North American swine. The emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus brought a heightened global, cross-sector awareness to the evolution and epidemiology of influenza A viruses in swine and presents a new era of challenges and opportunities for monitoring, understanding and controlling influenza in pigs. Unfortunately, these opportunities have yet to be significantly realized, and a better understanding of the ecology and evolution of IAV in swine does not yet exist, despite the passage of 3 years and investment of resources.

Last Modified: 06/27/2017
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