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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Virus and Prion Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #282802

Title: Review of influenza A virus in swine worldwide: a call for increased surveillance and research

item Baker, Amy
item DONIS, RUBEN - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDC) - United States
item WEBBY, RICHARD - St Jude Children’s Research Hospital
item SWENSON, SABRINA - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item GRAMER, MARIE - University Of Minnesota
item PASICK, JOHN - Canadian Food Inspection Agency
item CIACCI ZANELLA, JANICE - Embrapa-Pigs And Poultry
item PEREDA, ARIEL - Institute De Virologia
item VAN REETH, KRISTIEN - Ghent University
item BROWN, IAN - Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA)
item LEWIS, NICOLA - Cambridge University
item PEIRIS, MALIK - Hong Kong University Of Science
item SAITO, TAKEHIKO - National Institute Of Animal Health - Japan (NIAH, NARO)
item WONG, FRANK - Australian Animal Health
item PARCHARIYANON, SUJIRA - Animal Health Institute
item CHEN, HUALAN - Harbin Veterinary Research Institute
item NGUYEN, TUNG - National Center For Veterinary Diagnostics
item DAUPHIN, GWENAELLE - Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO)
item CLAES, FILIP - Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO)
item MUMFORD, ELIZABETH - World Health Organization (WHO) - Switzerland
item HAMILTON, KEITH - World Organization For Animal Health
item PAVADE, GOUNALAN - World Organization For Animal Health
item AWADA, LINA - World Organization For Animal Health

Submitted to: Zoonoses and Public Health
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/13/2013
Publication Date: 4/1/2014
Citation: Vincent, A., Awada, L., Brown, I., Chen, H., Claes, F., Dauphin, G., Donis, R., Culhane, M., Hamilton, K., Lewis, N., Mumford, E., Nguyen, T., Parchariyanon, S., Pasick, J., Pavade, G., Pereda, A., Peiris, M., Saito, T., Swenson, S., Van Reeth, K., Webby, R., Wong, F., Ciacci-Zanella, J. 2014. Review of influenza A virus in swine worldwide: a call for increased surveillance and research. Zoonoses and Public Health. 61(1):4-17.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAV) circulating in pigs and other non-human mammals has been chronically underfunded and virtually nonexistent in many areas of the world. This deficit continues in spite of our knowledge that influenza is a disease shared between humans and pigs since at least the 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic. In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America and demonstrated in a public forum the paucity of data on influenza viruses in swine. Scrutiny regarding this surveillance gap continues. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to consist of a combination of genes from IAV of North American and Eurasian swine-lineages that had never before been identified in swine or other species. The emergent H1N1 quickly spread in the human population and the outbreak reached pandemic phase 6 as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on June 11, 2009. Although the eight gene segments of the novel virus are similar to available sequences of corresponding genes from swine IAV from North America and Eurasia, no closely related ancestral IAV with this gene combination had been previously identified in North America or elsewhere in the world. Although there have been approximately 100 reported events of sporadic transmission of swine adapted IAV to humans since the Spanish flu pandemic, swine IAV of the H1N1 subtype have been historically distinct from avian and other mammalian H1N1 influenza viruses in qualities such as serologic cross-reactivity, nucleotide sequence and/or host specificity. (The exception to this tendency for host specificity of the swine IAV is the susceptibility of domestic turkeys to the triple reassortant viruses of North American swine. The emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) virus brought a heightened global, cross-sector awareness to the evolution and epidemiology of influenza A viruses in swine and presents a new era of challenges and opportunities for monitoring, understanding and controlling influenza in pigs. Unfortunately, these opportunities have yet to be significantly realized, and a better understanding of the ecology and evolution of IAV in swine does not yet exist, despite the passage of 3 years and investment of resources.