Location: National Clonal Germplasm RepositoryTitle: Creating a cryobank for germplasm of fruit and berry crops: methodological recommendations Author
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/6/2011
Publication Date: 10/31/2011
Citation: Kovalchuk, I., Kushnarenko, S., Turdiyev, T.T., Mukhitdinova, Z.R., Frolov, S., Romadanova, N.V., Reed, B.M. 2011. Creating a cryobank for germplasm of fruit and berry crops: methodological recommendations. Almaty: Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology. 37 p. Interpretive Summary: This publication describes the basic principles of developing a cryogenic bank for germplasm of fruit and berry crops, the structure of the cryobank, the necessary facilities, equipment and materials, the successive stages of work on the cryopreservation of apical meristems dormant buds and seeds. Recommended protocols optimized cryopreservation of germplasm of apple, pear, cherry, currant, raspberry and strawberry. Methodological recommendations are intended as a guide for the organization of the National germplasm specialists (fruit growers, plant physiologists and biotechnologists), scientific and industrial actors involved in conservation of germplasm, teachers and students in higher education.
Technical Abstract: Plant genetic resources are a national treasure in each country. They serve as a basis for developing new and improving existing varieties of plants. In Kazakhstan, a wide selection of cultivated and wild forms grow unique fruit and berry crops, including apple (Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem., Malus x domestica Borkh.), Pear (Pyrus communis L., Pyrus regelii Rehder), cherry (Prunus cerasus L., Cerasus tomentosa Thunb., Cerasus fruticosa Pall.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and strawberry (Fragaria L., Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), adapted to local conditions, resistant to pests and diseases. However, in recent decades under the impact of environmental and anthropogenic factors, there is a reduction of areas occupied by fruit and berry plants. At present, along with traditional methods of conservation of genetic resources (reserves, national parks, botanical gardens and nature reserves), there exists the most promising approach to solving this problem - cryopreservation of germplasm of vegetatively propagated plants in liquid nitrogen (-196 ° C), and then long-term preservation to Cryobank. For the cryopreservation of germplasm used mainly in the form of meristems, dormant buds, pollen, seeds and embryonic axes. Cryobank - is a scientific and technical complex, including the methodology of cryopreservation and specific equipment to ensure long-term storage of biological objects, which are stored in the form of live samples of germplasm of cultivated plants and their wild relatives. This manuscript includes the methodological recommendations developed at the Institute of Biology and Plant Biotechnology as a result of the implementation of projects: "Development of Biotechnology cryopreservation of isolated tissues and establishment of a berry germplasm Cryobank", the program NTP TS.0382. "The development of modern technologies for the formation of a cluster of biotechnology in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006 - 2008. " "Creating a cryogenic bank germplasm of fruit plants for conservation, replenishment and management of genetic resources of Kazakhstan" program NTP O.0493 "Development and use of genetic engineering and stem cell technologies in medicine, agriculture, environment, food and processing industry" in 2009 - 2011. " In the methodological recommendations outlined: the structure of Cryobank, the necessary facilities, equipment and materials, the successive stages of cryopreservation of apical meristems dormant buds and seeds of fruit and berry crops. Recommended protocols are given for optimized cryopreservation of germplasm of apple, pear, cherry, currant, raspberry and strawberry.