Submitted to: Workshop Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/26/2011
Publication Date: 11/8/2011
Citation: Bock, C.H., Gottwald, T.R. 2011. Processess involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infected citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Xanthomonas citri/Citrus canker, November 17-18, 2011, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. p. 27-30.
Technical Abstract: Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida and elsewhere, where the pathogen occurs and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms with strong winds and heavy rain are common in Florida. Understanding the interaction of the physical (wind and splash) and biological (bacteria production, dispersal and infection) factors involved can help guide development of effective management strategies, such as the use of wind breaks. In a series of experiments simulating wind and rain, the dynamics of these processes were investigated. Bacteria were produced and dispersed in splash continuously for up to 52 h (the maximum time tested), although numbers declined rapidly during the first 10 minutes of a dispersal event. Higher wind speeds result in greater quantities of bacteria escaping the canopy downwind in wind driven splash, the relationship being exponential with respect to wind speed (R2 = 0.84>0.99).