Submitted to: Quercetin: Dietary sources, functions and health benefits
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/11/2011
Publication Date: 6/14/2012
Citation: Morris, J.B., Wang, M.L., Thomas, T. 2012. Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid content among several Hibiscus sabdariffa accession calyces based on maturity in a greenhouse. In: Chikamatsu, T., Hida, Y., editors. Quercetin: Dietary sources, functions and health benefits. Hauppauge,NY:Nova Science Publishers. p.269-282. Interpretive Summary: Fruit of Hibiscus sabdariffa contain many useful chemicals for use as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. Little information for flavonol and fatty acid variability and best production time period for maximum phytochemical production in a greenhouse in Georgia is known. Hibiscus sabdariffa samples produced quality plants and the fruit produced flavonols ranging from 0.116 to 1.882 mg/g while fatty acids ranged from 0 to just over 5 % at Griffin, GA. Quality production and health promoting flavonols and fatty acids exist in Hibiscus sabdariffa fruit for use in the southern U.S.A. when grown in greenhouse conditions.
Technical Abstract: Flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acids in plants have many useful health attributes including antioxidants, cholesterol lowering, and cancer prevention. Six accessions of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces were evaluated for quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin content, while 11 accessions were evaluated for fatty acid content as calyces matured in a greenhouse from late 2009 - early 2010. Variation for all chemical traits were found among the roselle calyces between accessions. The accession, PI 265319 produced the most quercetin (1.134 mg/g) and myricetin (0.972 mg/g). However, PI 286316 produced the most kaempferol (1.882 mg/g). Quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol declined insignificantly as plants matured. Several fatty acids differed significantly in content among the roselle accessions. The accession, PI 286319 produced the most mono-unsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid (0.046 %) and gadoleic acid (0.213 %), however PI 468409 produced the most oleic acid (5.091 %). The accession, PI 286319 also produced the most omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (6.218 %) while PI 268097 produced the most '-linolenic acid (0.093 %). The accession, PI 286316 produced the most omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (0.038 %), however PI 265319 produced significantly more docsahexaenoic acid (5.296 %) than all other roselle accessions. Stearic, behenic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids declined significantly over time as roselle plants matured, however gadoleic and arachidonic fatty acid content increased significantly as the calyces matured. Interestingly, the red calyces produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids overall. Significant correlations were found for many of the flavonol and fatty acid traits tested. Based on these results, sufficient variability exists in these Hibiscus accessions for quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid breeding projects and for use as nutraceutical or functional food plants.