|Coyne, Clarice - Clare|
Submitted to: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/15/2010
Publication Date: 3/30/2011
Citation: Mallikarjuna, N., Coyne, C.J., Cho, S., Rynearson, S., Rajesh, P., Jadhav, D.R., Muehlbauer, F. 2011. Cicer. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources. Legume Crops and Forages. Springer, New York, N.Y. pp. 63-82. Interpretive Summary: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the earliest grain crops cultivated by man and has been found in Middle Eastern archeological sites dated at 7500–6800 BC. Chickpea is grown in about 50 countries with an estimated 95% of the cultivated area in the developing countries. Chickpea production is particularly important in the countries of South Asia and accounts for about 71% of global area devoted to the crop. Various studies have shown that chickpea rests on a narrow genetic base and this is the reason for the crop being susceptible to a range of diseases and pests. Chickpea is endowed with rich germplasm in the form of wild species. The genus Cicer is classified into three gene pools based on its crossability with chickpea. Based on their crossability with cultivated species, wild species, both annual and perennial, have been grouped. Many of the annual species in the group that are not crossable harbor important traits/genes necessary for the improvement of chickpea. For crop improvement in chickpea, increased emphasis also needs to be placed on the collection of C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum as some of the accessions have useful variation for economically important traits and are crossable with chickpea.
Technical Abstract: Chickpea is endowed with rich germplasm in the form of wild species. The genus Cicer is classified into three gene pools based on its crossability with cultigen. The primary gene pool consists of cultivated species and landraces. The secondary gene pool consists of the progenitor species, C. reticulatum and C. echinospermum, a species that is crossable with C. arietinum but with reduced fertility of the resulting hybrids and progenies; nevertheless, both are cross-compatible with the cultigen and do not need in vitro interventions to produce hybrids. The tertiary gene pool consists of all the annual and perennial Cicer that are not crossable with cultivated C. arietinum. Many of the annual species in the teritary group harbor important traits/genes necessary for the improvement of chickpea, such as H. armigera resistance in C. judaicum, C. pinnatifidum, and C. bijugum; Ascochyta blight resistance in C. judaicum, C. bijugum, and C. pinnatifidum; botrytis gray mold resistance in C. judaicum, and drought resistance in C. pinnatifidum. Attempts, all unsuccessful, to cross between the annual and perennial species is summarized. Increased emphasis also needs to be placed on the collection of C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum as some of the accessions have shown variation for economically important traits and are crossable with cultigens.