Submitted to: Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/18/2009
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Molecular genetics in animal production has greatly advanced in the past 20 years. This advance was facilitated by advances in biotechnology in the human field and the efforts to sequence the human genome (International Human Genome Sequence Consortium, 2001). Animal breeding programs have modified allelic frequencies of genes involved in the regulation of traits of economical importance. However, little is known about the combination of genes that are actually involved in the expression of these traits.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this review is to describe the impact of the use of molecular markers in animal production. Advances in genomics have been due to the availability of genomic sequence and molecular markers. Several types of molecular markers have been developed. The most commonly used are microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Microsatellites have been used to detect chromosomal regions associated with the traits of interest, through linkage analyses. Single nucleotide polymorphisms have been used in marker-association studies. Whole genome analysis also uses SNP. Information from whole genome analysis has been useful in improving the reliability of genetic merit in dairy cattle. It is expected that it will also be useful in improving the reliability of genetic merit in other breeds and species, as well.