Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2008
Publication Date: 4/10/2008
Citation: Young, M.E. 2008. Case 22:Type II diabetes. In: Toy, E.C., Seifert, W.E., Strobel, H.W., Harms, K.P., editors. Case Files: Biochemistry. 2nd Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical. p.198-207. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diabetes is caused by insulin resistance and usually has elevated insulin levels, and it is diagnosed in the adult years. Type II diabetes is far more common than type 1 diabetes. Risk factors include obesity, family history, sedentary life style, and, in women, hyperandrogenic states or anovulation. Diabetes mellitus is now recognized as one of the most common and significant diseases facing Americans. It is estimated that 1 of 4 children born today will become diabetic in their lifetime because of obesity and inactivity. Also, it has been noted that diabetes has a severe effect on blood vessels, particularly in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (blockage of arteries by lipids and plaque), which can lead to myocardial infarction or stroke. Diabetes mellitus is treated as equivalent to a prior cardiovascular event in its risk for future atherosclerotic disease. Diabetes is also associated with immunosuppression, renal insufficiency, blindness, neuropathy, and other metabolic disorders.