|VIDALAKIS, G. - University Of California|
|DAGRACA, J. - Texas A&M University|
|DIXON, W. - Florida Department Of Agriculture And Consumer Services|
|KESINGER, M. - Florida Department Of Agriculture And Consumer Services|
|POLEK, M. - Citrus Research Board|
|WILLIAMS, L. - Florida Department Of Agriculture And Consumer Services|
|WRIGHT, G. - University Of Arizona|
Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2009
Publication Date: 7/27/2009
Citation: Vidalakis, G., Dagraca, J.V., Dixon, W.N., Kesinger, M., Krueger, R., Lee, R.F., Polek, M., Williams, L.L., Wright, G.C. 2009. Quarantine, sanitary and certification programs to prevent citrus quarnatine pests in the USA. Available: http://calcitrusquality.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/abstracts-resumenes. p. 2-3.
Interpretive Summary: This paper summarizes the procedures used when importing citrus germplasm from domestic and international sources. The citrus introduction and certification programs in the USA and their history are briefly described. The progress on the development of the National Citrus Passport for safe and expedited exchange of citrus germplasm among the three facilities which are authorized to import and therapy citrus germplasm is summarized. Also, the National Clean Plant Network for specialty crops is explained.
Technical Abstract: Citrus germplasm has moved from its geographic origin in the Far East, distributing also several graft-transmissible diseases in all the citrus growing areas of the world. In spite of the plethora of such diseases, the citrus industry has survived through the decades and prospered in many countries including the USA. This was a direct result of the establishment of disease testing and/or budwood certification programs that provided a safe mechanism of introduction of new varieties via disease testing, therapy, maintenance, and distribution of high quality propagative material to the industry. The basic protocols for the detection and elimination of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus are well defined and have been known for many decades. Similarly, the budwood distribution mechanisms with pathogen re-tested mother trees, increase blocks, and fruit evaluation for horticultural trueness-to-type are also well defined and in use in many citricultural countries around the world. In the USA the main citrus producing states are California, Arizona, Texas, and Florida. Even though the protocols and technology for the citrus germplasm programs are common across the board, each of these states has developed and adjusted their quarantine-introduction and budwood distribution-certification programs to the needs (size, type, available resources, involved agencies, disease or pest pressures, etc) of their specific industries. In general, in California, the Citrus Clonal Protection Program handles quarantine-introduction and budwood distribution-certification. In Florida, two different programs, the Citrus Germplasm Introduction Program and the Bureau of Citrus Budwood Registration, handle the quarantine-introduction and budwood distribution-certification, respectively. Arizona and Texas, do not have quarantine-introduction programs. They acquire pathogen tested citrus budwood from California and Florida, and they maintain, re-test, and distribute budwood to their industries via distribution-certification programs, namely, the Arizona Certified Budwood Program and the Texas A & M University-Kingsville Citrus Center Program. Overall the different USA programs presented here involve all the different agencies (University, State and Federal government, and the Industry) in order to have the necessary funds, scientific knowledge, infrastructure, and regulatory basis for successful operation. The USDA, ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD), while based in California, serves the entire USA. The NCGRCD is charged with acquiring, maintaining, evaluating, and distributing materials free of charge to qualified scientists and certification programs around the globe. The NCGRCD is not focused only on citrus varieties with commercial interest, like most of the state operating programs, but it preserves in general germplasm of citrus and citrus relatives. The National Citrus Germplasm Passport Program is currently being developed to facilitate the safe exchange of the citrus genetic material between the state and national citrus programs, and this program will be discussed. Also recently at the national level, the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN), a collaborative effort of the three agencies of the USDA: the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) has been started. The mission of the newly developed NCPN is to provide high quality clonally propagated plant material free of targeted plant pathogens and pests that cause economic loss to protect the environment and ensure the global competitiveness of specialty crop producers.