|Butts, Christopher - Chris|
Submitted to: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/15/2009
Publication Date: 7/17/2009
Citation: Sundaram, J., Kandala, C., Windam, W.R., Holser, R.A., Butts, C.L. 2009. Estimating oil and fatty acids contents of in-shell peanuts using NIR spectroscopy . American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Interpretive Summary: Total oil and fatty acids of the peanut play important role in peanut quality. A device which can measure these rapidly and nondestructively is very useful in quality assessment. Techniques using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for food quality measurements are becoming more popular in food processing and inspection of agricultural commodities. NIR spectroscopy has several advantages over conventional physical and chemical analytical methods of food quality analysis. It is a rapid and non destructive method and provides more information about the components and chemical structure of food products. It can be used to measure several parameters simultaneously. In this work a Foss NIR spectroscope was used to measure the total oil and fatty acids of peanuts. Peanuts of Virginia type were used. Before collecting the NIR spectrum of the conditioned samples, total oil and fatty acids were determined using standard methods, with three replicates. These samples were then separated into two different groups, one for calibration and the second for validation. To collect the NIR spectrum peanut samples from each group were placed in a rectangular sample cup with a transparent glass base. Light was allowed to fall on the sample from the bottom of the sample cup and the light reflected by the samples was collected. This was repeated on 30 samples. Several pretreatments were done on the collected data from both calibration and validation groups. PLS analysis was then carried on the calibration groups to develop models for the individual pretreatments. These models were tested on the validation groups to predict the total oil and fatty acids of the peanuts. Predicted values of the total oil and fatty acids were compared with their reference values determined by the standard methods.
Technical Abstract: The Southeast U.S. receives an average of 1300 mm annual rainfall, however poor seasonal distribution of rainfall often limits production. Irrigation is used during the growing season to supplement rainfall to sustain profitable crop production. Increased water capture would improve water use efficiency and reduce irrigation requirements. Furrow diking has been proposed as a cost effective management practice that is designed to create a series of storage basins in the furrow between crop rows to catch and retain rainfall and irrigation water. Furrow diking has received much attention in arid and semi-arid regions with mixed results, yet has not been adapted for cotton production in the Southeast U.S. Our objectives were to evaluate the agronomic response and economic feasibility of producing cotton with and without furrow diking in conventional tillage over a range of irrigation rates including no irrigation. Studies were conducted at 2 research sites each year from 2005-2007. Irrigation scheduling was based on Irrigator Pro for Cotton software. The use of furrow diking in these studies periodically reduced water consumption and improved yield and net returns. In 2006 and 2007, when irrigation scheduling was based on soil water status, an average of 76 mm ha-1 of irrigation water was saved by furrow diking, producing similar cotton yield and net returns. Furrow diking improved cotton yield an average of 171 kg ha-1 and net return by $245 ha-1 over multiple irrigation rates, in 1 of 3 years. We conclude that furrow diking has the capability to reduce irrigation requirements and the costs associated with irrigation when rainfall is periodic and drought is not severe.