Submitted to: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/8/2007
Publication Date: 4/1/2008
Citation: Nol, P., Palmer, M.V., Waters, W.R., Aldwell, F.E., Buddle, B.M., Triantis, J., Linke, L., Phillips, G., Thacker, T.C., Rhyan, J., Dunbar, M., Salman, M.D. 2008. Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 44(2):247-259. Interpretive Summary: White-tailed deer are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (TB) within the United States. The presence of this reservoir host seriously hinders ongoing efforts to eradicate this disease from cattle. Control measures alternative to abattoir surveillance or test and slaughter campaigns are being considered for control in other developed countries with wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis. In particular, vaccines are being evaluated for use in the reservoir host(s) in Great Britain and New Zealand. In the United States, reservoir population management and test and slaughter strategies have not been successful in managing the disease in locales where the disease is endemic in the reservoir host. Thus, state and federal officials are considering a strategy to vaccinate free-ranging white-tailed deer for TB in these areas. In the present study, the efficacy of both oral and parenteral administered vaccine is evaluated. Findings demonstrate the potential for this strategy in controlling disease within the reservoir host. These findings are useful for the tuberculosis eradication campaign within the United States.
Technical Abstract: We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=8) received 10**9 colony forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=8) received 10**9 cfu BCG in culture directly to the oropharynx, one group (n=7) was vaccinated with 10**6 cfu BCG subcutaneously, and one group served as a control and received culture media directly to the oropharynx (n=7). All animals were challenged 3 months after vaccination. Five months post-challenge, the animals were examined for lesions. Results indicate that both oral forms of BCG, and parenterally-administerd BCG offered significant protection against M. bovis challenge as compared to controls.