Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/1/2007
Publication Date: 6/1/2007
Citation: Burke, J.M., Terrill, T.H., Kallu, R.R., Miller, J.E., Mosjidis, J. 2007. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. Journal of Animal Science. 85(10):2753-2761.
Interpretive Summary: Widespread resistance of gastrointestinal worms to chemical dewormers has led to the need for alternative parasite control. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP), have been used as an alternative to chemical dewormers in sheep, but its use in goats has not been examined extensively. Scientists at USDA, ARS in Booneville, AR and Fort Valley State University, GA determined that COWP can effectively control Haemonchus contortus in goats and in combination with grazing sericea lespedeza chemical deworming may be unnecessary. These results indicate that COWP may aid in control of gastrointestinal parasites and this information is important to producers, extension agents, and scientists.
Technical Abstract: The objectives were to determine optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia and four experiments during warmer summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats grazed bermudagrass-dominant pastures in mid-October and randomly allocated to receive no or 4 g COWP (Exp. 1) or 0, 5, or 10 g of COWP (Exp. 2). In spring, meat goat kids that grazed bermudagrass were assigned randomly to receive no, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g COWP (Exp. 3). In mid-summer kids were assigned randomly to receive nothing, 5 g COWP, apple cider vinegar drench, or vinegar drench and 5 g COWP (Exp. 4) in a 2 x 2 factorial design. In late summer, doe kids were assigned randomly in a 2 x 2 factorial design to receive no or 2 g COWP and were supplemented with 220 g corn/SBM (CSB) or cottonseed meal (CSM; Exp. 5) while grazing one of two bermudagrass pastures. In early summer, yearling does were assigned randomly in a 2 x 2 factorial design to receive no or 5 g COWP and grazed tall fescue (TF) or sericea lespedeza (SL; Exp. 6). Does grazed respective pastures for 21 days then were all returned to tall fescue. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 days for up to 42 days to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC). In mature goats grazing winter pasture (Exp. 1), mean FEC of untreated goats increased and those of COWP-treated goats remained low on Days 0, 7, and 14 and PCV was similar between groups, but FEC and PCV were similar in 0, 5, or 10 g COWP-treated goats throughout the experiment (Exp. 2). FEC were similar among all low doses of COWP for all dates, which were lower on Days 7 through 21 compared with untreated kids, but similar by Day 28 (Exp. 3). PCV was lower in untreated kids by Day 14. There was no effect of vinegar drenching on FEC in untreated or 5 g COWP-treated kids (Exp. 4). CSM did not enhance reduction in FEC in response to COWP, nor did the high protein supplementation control GIN more so than CSB (Exp. 5), but the combination of SL and COWP appeared to reduce FEC to a greater extent than SL or COWP alone (Exp. 6). In conclusion, a dose of COWP as low as 0.5 g was effective in reducing FEC. COWP does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 larvae which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV. COWP may be less effective in mature goats and those harboring worms other than H. contortus. A combination of COWP and SL may control GIN than either strategy alone.