|RANGA RAO, G|
|EL BOUHSSINI, M|
Submitted to: Food Legume Research International Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/31/2006
Publication Date: 1/1/2007
Citation: Sharma, H.C., Clement, S.L., Ridsdill-Smith, T.J., Ranga Rao, G.V., El Bouhssini, M., Ujagir, R., Srivastava, C.P., Miles, M. 2007. Proceedings Fourth International Food Legume Research Conference, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding, New Delhi, India, pp. 1-23.
Interpretive Summary: Insect pests are major impediments to grain legume production, especially in the developing countries. In this invited proceedings chapter for a conference in India, a USDA-ARS research entomologist joined other world leaders in grain legume entomology to summarize the current state of knowledge with regard to management of insect pests. With widespread development of pests exhibiting resistance to chemical pesticides and continuing environmental and health problems associated with pesticide use, there is a critical need for alternative methods to protect grain legume crops from insect damage. This chapter introduces the reader to a wide range of alternative pest management practices and researchable alternatives, including development of pest-resistant cultivars based on genes from wild crop relatives, genetic engineering of plants, cultural manipulation of the crop and its environment to enhance biological control, pest forecasting, use of natural plant products and bio-pesticides, and the rational use of selective chemicals to control pests of grain legumes. Because the international community of grain legume entomologists meet infrequently, the production of this chapter is important because it provides a comprehenisve research blueprint for these researchers to follow over the next six years.
Technical Abstract: Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod borers; spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata; spiny pod borer, Etiella zinckenella; pod fly, Melanagromyza obtusa; leaf miner, Liriomyza cicerina; stem fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli; pea and bean weevils, Sitona spp.; aphids, Aphis craccivora, Aphis fabae, and Acyrthosiphon pisum; white fly, Bemisia tabaci; leipidopterous defoliators, Spodoptera spp.; leafhoppers, Empoasca spp.; thrips, Megaleurothrips dorsalis and Caliothrips indicus; blister beetles, Mylabris spp.; and the bruchids, Collasobruchus chinensis and Bruchus pisorum. With development of resistance to insecticides in several of these pest species, there is a critical need to integrate different control tactics. Sources of grain legume resistance to insect pests have been identified, but these have not been used effectively in crop improvement. Thus, there is a need to place greater emphasis on utilization of wild relatives of crops, genetic engineering of plants for resistance to pests, and identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to insect pests. Cultural manipulation of the crop and its environment, population monitoring and pest forecasting, manipulation of the crop environment to encourage the activity of natural enemies, use of natural plant products and bio-pesticides alone or in combination with synthetic pesticides, deployment of insect-resistant varieties via conventional breeding, wide hybridization, genetic engineering, and the rational use of selective chemicals can be exploited to manage pests of food legumes.