Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/2006
Publication Date: 6/7/2006
Citation: Nol, P., Palmer, M.V., Waters, W.R., Thacker, T.C., Rhyan, J., Aldwell, F., Buddle, B., Dunbar, M., Salman, M. 2006. Oral bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination of White-tailed Deer against Bovine Tuberculosis [abstract]. In: Michigan Bovine Tuberculosis 11th Annual Meeting, June 7-8, 2006, Lansing, Michigan, 2006 CDROM.
Technical Abstract: In 1994, a focus of M. bovis infection in white-tailed deer was identified in Michigan. This represents the first known reservoir of M. bovis in free-ranging wildlife in the United. Current control measures include decreasing deer density and limitations on feeding and baiting of deer. Another possible control measure would be vaccination of deer to prevent disease transmission. To evaluate the efficacy of M. bovis BCG vaccine delivered orally to white-tailed deer, 30 yearling white-tailed deer were randomly assigned to one of four groups; 1 dose of 10**9 CFU BCG (Danish) delivered in a lipid formulated oral bait (n=8); 1 dose of 10**9 CFU BCG (Danish) delivered orally in liquid form (n=8); 1 dose of 10**6 CFU BCG (Danish) delivered SC (n=7); and deer receiving an oral placebo (n=7). All deer were inoculated with 300 CFU of virulent M. bovis 77 days after vaccination. One hundred thirty days after challenge all deer were euthanized and examined. Gross lesion severity scores of the lung and mediastinal lymph node were reduced (P < 0.05) in all vaccinated deer compared to deer receiving a placebo. Microscopic evaluation of the right cranial lung lobe and mediastinal lymph node revealed fewer granulomas in BCG-vaccinated deer than in deer receiving a placebo. Moreover, granulomas in vaccinated deer were smaller, less necrotic with rare acid fast bacilli compared to lesions in deer receiving a placebo. Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Danish) can be effective in reducing lesion severity in M. bovis-inoculated deer when delivered orally or parenterally. Decreased lesion severity with less necrosis and fewer acid fast bacilli would likely decrease the ability of vaccinated deer to shed virulent M. bovis thus decreasing intraspecies and interspecies transmission.