Submitted to: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/9/2006
Publication Date: 7/20/2006
Citation: He, H., Genovese, K.J., Lowry, V.K., Nisbet, D.J., Kogut, M.H. 2006. Response of nitric oxide production to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in turkey and chicken peripheral blood monocytes. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. 48:99-106.
Interpretive Summary: DNA is a genetic blueprint of life and occurs in all cells. DNA found in bacteria contains a unique element, called CpG-DNA. Monocyte is one type of white blood cells found in turkeys. These monocytes can recognize bacterial components and produce chemicals that can kill bacteria. These bacteria-killing chemicals help turkeys fight bacterial infections and therefore stay healthy. We have performed experiments to see if turkey monocytes produce bacteria-killing chemicals when they are exposed to the CpG-DNA. We found that turkey monocytes are able to recognize CpG-DNA and produce bacteria-killing chemical, such as nitric oxide. We have also found that turkey monocytes can produce different amounts of bacteria-killing chemical depending on the type of CpG-DNA. This information is important to the pharmaceutical and poultry industries in the United States because it may offer a new method of producing healthy chicken and reduce the use for antibiotics.
Technical Abstract: We have evaluated the innate immune response to various synthetic CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) by measuring nitric oxide production in the peripheral blood monocytes from turkey poults. Our results indicate that the presence of the CpG dinucleotide in ODN was a prerequisite for activation of turkey monocytes and induction of nitric oxide synthesis. CpG motifs and sequence structure of the ODN were found to greatly influence the stimulatory activity as well. The most potent CpG ODN to induce nitric oxide synthesis in turkey monocytes was human specific CpG ODN M362, followed by CpG ODN 2006 (human), CpG ODN#17 (chicken), and CpG ODN 1826 (mouse). Optimal CpG motif for NO induction was GTCGTT. Phosphorothioate modification of CpG ODN also significantly increased stimulatory activity. Compared with chicken monocytes, turkey monocytes appeared to be less sensitive to CpG motif variation, whereas chicken monocytes were found to respond more strictly to human-specific CpG ODN or ODNs that contain GTCGTT motifs.