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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Columbia, Missouri » Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #180668

Title: CROP MANAGEMENT IMPACTS ON CLAYPAN SOIL QUALITY

Author
item JUNG, WONKYO
item Kitchen, Newell
item Sudduth, Kenneth - Ken
item Kremer, Robert
item ANDERSON, STEPHEN
item Sadler, Edward

Submitted to: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/9/2005
Publication Date: 9/27/2005
Citation: Jung, W., Kitchen, N.R., Sudduth, K.A., Kremer, R.J., Anderson, S.H., Sadler, E.J. 2005. Crop management impacts on claypan soil quality [abstract[ [CDROM]. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: A high clay-content argillic horizon occurring 10 to 100 cm below the surface restricts soil water movement and reduces nutrient efficiency of claypan soils, which affect soil quality related to production and environmental buffering. The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of long-term (12 yr) annual cropping systems (ACS) and conservation reserve program (CRP) practices on the soil quality of a claypan soil in north central Missouri. In 2002, soil cores were collected (0- to 7.5-, 7.5- to 15-, and 15- to 30-cm depths) from summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions (LP). Management systems included: (i) annual cropping system 1 (ACS1), a mulch tillage corn-soybean rotation system; (ii) annual cropping system 2 (ACS2), a no-till corn-soybean rotation system; (iii) annual cropping system 3 (ACS3), a no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotation system with red clover as a cover crop; and (iv) CRP, a continuous cool-season grass and legume system. Soil cores were analyzed for soil particle size distribution, bulk density, cation exchange capacity, soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (TN), microbial respiration, and water-stable soil aggregation. No interactions were observed between cropping system and LP. At the 0- to 7.5-cm soil depth, CRP increased SOC storage by 33% and TN storage by 34%. Soil aggregation under CRP management was more than double that of the ACS. On the backslope, soil aggregation was significantly higher than on the footslope. SOC and TN were significantly higher on the footslope than on the backslope at the 7.5- to 15-cm soil depth. These results show that soil quality of claypan soil landscapes was not significantly different among ACS management practices. Compared to ACS, CRP enhanced soil quality.