Submitted to: American Peanut Research and Education Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2005
Publication Date: 7/15/2005
Citation: CD ROM Interpretive Summary: None required.
Technical Abstract: Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at NPRL. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spacial relationships. A diamond-pattern seed placement usually results in achieving ground cover 10 to 14 days sooner than peanuts planted in single or twin rows. This benefit will decrease soil moisture loss, the survivability of competitive plant species, and improve yield. Reducing early competition for resources between peanut plants may further contribute to earliness. Management of soil borne diseases in peanut may be affected by planting patterns. Three disease strategies were factored over single row, twin row, and diamond planting patterns, for a total of 9 treatments. The first disease strategy was on a 10 to 14 day schedule starting with three chlorothalanil applications followed by four tebuconazole applications. The second disease management strategy followed AUPnut using chlorothalanil when recommended during the first 49 DAP, tebuconazole between 50 and 100 DAP, and chlorothalanil after 101 DAP. The third disease management strategy incorporated AUPnut recommendations with minimum soil temperature to determine product selection for disease control from July until harvest. Tebuconazole was selected when minimum soil temperature was below 21.1 C and above 23.8 C to target Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii, which are more prevalent with lower and higher minimum soil temperatures, respectively. Chlorothalnil, which is a more affordable product, was selected to maintain suppression of Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum when minimum soil temperature was between 21.1 and 23.8 C. Replicated field experiments were conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2004 at two locations each year on Americus and Faceville soil types in Terrell county Georgia. Peanut cultivar ‘Georgia Green’ was sown at 124 kg/ha to establish single row, twin row, and diamond pattern plots establishing a uniform number of plants per linear unit of row. Acephate was applied in furrow at planting in all treatments because a system for delivering granular insecticides has not been incorporated with the diamond planter. A two-row KMC digger/inverter was modified in order to effectively handle peanuts evenly spread over a 182 cm bed for the diamond planted plots. Disease index, yield components, and grade are recorded.