|McCoy, Joe Ann|
Submitted to: Proceedings Assoc for Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC) Annual Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/5/2005
Publication Date: 9/17/2005
Citation: Marek, L.F., Brenner, D.M., Mccoy, J.H., Gardner, C.A. 2005. Germplasm Resources for New Crops Research: North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA U.S.A. Proceedings Association for Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC) Annual Meeting.
Technical Abstract: As part of the United States National Plant Germplasm System, we work to conserve genetically diverse crop germplasm and associated information, to conduct germplasm-related research, and to distribute this germplasm to researchers and educators world-wide. We manage numerous industrial, nutritional and medicinal germplasms including species of Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Cuphea, Echinacea, Euphorbia, Helianthus, Hypericum , Linum, Perilla, Vernonia, and diverse Umbelliferae. The Cuphea collection includes 651accessions (64 of the estimated 260 species in this genus). Accessions from ten of these species have been used in the development of Cuphea lines for domestic production of industrially important mid-chain fatty acids (caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic) for which the only other known plant sources are coconut and palm oils. As part of a national team made up of public and private sector groups, our station is establishing the most reliable germination conditions for the wild germplasm that provides the reserve of genetic diversity for Cuphea. We maintain 151 accessions of Echinacea (all 9 species in the genus) and 92 accessions of Hypericum (48 species) as part of a focus on collection, regeneration, and evaluation of genetically diverse medicinal plant species. In collaboration with Iowa State University, the University of Iowa and the National Institutes of Health, we provide germplasm for in-depth study of the phytopharmaceutical properties of Echinacea and Hypericum. Research projects associated with our medicinal plant collections include studies of genetic and chemical diversity, bioactivity, proteomics, determination of mechanisms of action, and enhancement breeding. The Amaranthus collection includes 3,329 accessions (40 of the estimated 60 species). The germplasm originated in 85 countries. Representation of both wild and cultivated sources make the collection an important resource for taxonomic studies as well as for baseline herbicide resistance, nutritional and molecular research. The world's record tallest amaranth (461 cm) was grown in Ames in 2004 from seeds of Amaranthus australis, accession PI 553076. The large plants of PI 553076 are potentially useful for biomass production.