Submitted to: British Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/11/2005
Publication Date: 12/20/2005
Citation: Cutler, S.A., Rasmussen, M.A., Hensley, M.J., Wilhelms, K.W., Griffith, R.W., Scanes, C.G. 2005. Effects of Lactobacilli and lactose on Salmonella typhimurium colonisation and microbial fermentation in the crop of the young turkey. British Poultry Science. 46(6):708-716.
Interpretive Summary: Experiments were performed on turkeys to determine if Lactobacillus or lactose would change conditions in the crop so that Salmonella could not colonize this digestive organ. The crop is an organ of considerable microbial fermentation as demonstrated by the types and amounts of fermentation acids detected in crop contents. Turkeys tend to eat during daylight hours and as such the crop tends to be full of an actively fermenting digesta at the beginning of night. This results in an increase in fermentation acids such as lactic acid and a decline in pH values. Addition of Lactobacillus or lactose did not consistently change the colonization of the crop by Salmonella.
Technical Abstract: Three experiments were performed to examine the effects of Lactobacilli and lactose on microbial fermentation and Salmonella typhimurium (ST) colonisation in the crop of the young turkey. The following carboxylic acids were detected in the crop ingesta: formic, acetic, butyric, lactic, valeric, caproic, oxalic, phenyl acetic, succinic, and fumaric acids, but propionic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids were not detectable. At the beginning of the night, there were considerable quantities of ingesta in the crop of young turkeys. During the scotophase, there were progressive reductions in the contents and pH. Moreover, there were linear increases the concentration of lactic, valeric, and caproic acids (by approximately 7 fold over 8 hours). Much smaller changes in crop pH were observed in the study where dietary treatments of Lactobacilli were not included. Chronic addition of lactose or Lactobacilli to the diet exerted modest effects on the carboxylic acid concentration in the crop contents but did not consistently influence colonisation of the crop by S.T. Young turkeys confine eating to the hours of illumination (photophase) with a peak in consumption prior to the subjective dusk.