|Lay Jr, Donald|
Submitted to: World Organization for Animal Health Scientific and Technical Review
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/6/2004
Publication Date: 2/15/2005
Citation: Smith, G.C., Grandin, T., Friend, T.H., Lay Jr, D.C., Swanson, J.C. 2005. A compilation of research literature and best practices information related to animal welfare concerns in land transport of animals. World Organization for Animal Health Scientific and Technical Review.
Technical Abstract: All attempts to implement a procedure that would assist in decreasing the amount of stress that poultry and livestock are exposed to during transportation must take into account the complexity of stressors and their characteristics that are associated with moving animals from one location to another. The considerations are as follows: 1) transportation stress is a compound stressor, being composed of many stressors that give rise to the full effect of transportation stress; 2) each stressor does not create the same deleterious effects or to the same degree; 3) some factors of transportation are only potential stressors and do not become a stressor until they reach a level of magnitude to become a concern. Based on our current knowledge of the many stressors that impact stock during transportation, current recommendations are as follows. It is likely that the most deleterious stressors associated with transportation are handling, loading/unloading, mixing of unfamiliar individuals, and environmental stress such as heat and cold. Therefore, the most effective means of decreasing transportation stress would be to design trucks and loading equipment to allow the easiest transition for stock to move on and off transportation vehicles. In addition, education and enforcement of premier management practices associated with livestock handling are imperative. Finally, recommendations relative to transportation during environmental extremes need to be closely followed and supplementary precautions should be considered such as providing water to stock during long periods of transportation and during exposure to hot and humid conditions.