Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/26/2004
Publication Date: 4/1/2005
Citation: Gilbert, R.A., Tai, P.Y.P., Glaz, B., Edme, S.J., Miller, J.D., Davidson, J.O., Dunckelman, J.W., and Comstock, J.C. Registratiion of 'CP 96-1602' sugarcane. Crop Science. 45:786-787. 2005. Interpretive Summary: Sugarcane is grown on organic and sand soils in the Lake Okeechobee area of south Florida. This region contributes about 25% of U.S. domestic sugar production. New cultivars that yield well on both soil types are needed, but only rarely are such cultivars identified. Experimental data of CP 96-1602 suggest that it may be one of these unique cultivars. On organic soils, the cane yield of CP 96-1602 was 5.8% higher than that of the commercial reference cultivar, CP 70-1133. In addition, its sugar content was 7.6% higher than that of CP 70-1133. Its high cane and sugar content resulted in a sugar per hectare yield and an economic index on organic soils that were 14.2% and 23.6% higher, respectively, for CP 96-1602 than for CP 70-1133. On sand soils, the cane yield and sugar content of CP 96-1602 were 14.4 and 8.0% higher, respectively, than for CP 70-1133. The high cane and sugar content resulted in a sugar per hectare yield and an economic index on sand soils that were, respectively, 23.7% and 35.9% higher for CP 96-1602 than for CP 70-1133. Cultivar resistance and tolerance are the major sources of sugarcane disease control, but they are challenging to identify and quantify, because plants are growing and therefore exposed to disease pressures all year. CP 96-1602 has shown adequate resistance for commercial production in Florida to eye spot, rust, smut, leaf scald, and sugarcane mosaic virus, and moderate resistance to ratoon stunting disease. CP 96-1602 is susceptible to sugarcane yellow leaf virus, but its high yields in experimental plots were obtained regardless of this susceptibility. The commercial release of CP 96-1602 makes available to Florida growers a cultivar that maintains high yields in the presence of diseases, and therefore should help to continue providing the U.S. an affordable and stable sugar supply. Additionally, CP 96-1602 will be tested extensively by sugarcane farmers in Central America, who grow mostly 'CP' cultivars.
Technical Abstract: Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars is critical for growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to test yields, cold tolerance, and disease resistance of 11 new sugarcane genotypes in the plant-cane, first-ratoon, and second-ratoon crops in commercial fields at 10 commercial sugarcane sites in Florida. CP 96-1602, an outstanding genotype in these tests, was selected from progeny of a polycross with CP 81-1425 as the female parent, a breeding line with high sucrose content that was not released due to susceptibility to sugarcane rust. CP 96-1602 was developed through cooperative research by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida-Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released in the autumn of 2003. The mean stalk weights of CP 96-1602 and CP 70-1133, the commercial reference cultivar, were 1.58 and 1.52 kg, respectively. Yields of theoretical recoverable sugar and of cane for CP 96-1602 were 127.2 g sugar per kg cane and 155.0 tons cane per ha, respectively, and 118 g per kg and 143.4 tons per ha, respectively, for CP 70-1133. This resulted in mean yields of 19.7 and 16.8 tons of sugar per ha for CP 96-1602 and CP 70-1133, respectively. CP 96-1602 has shown adequate resistance to all major diseases in Florida except to sugarcane yellow leaf virus. Cold tolerance of CP 96-1602 is poor. Based on its high sugar and tonnage yields in the presence of diseases prevalent in Florida, CP 96-1602 may make a substantial commercial contribution to sugarcane production in Florida.