Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/1/2004
Publication Date: 5/1/2005
Citation: Sorensen, R.B., Sternitzke, D.A., Lamb, M.C., Sconyers, L.E. 2005. Row orientation and seeding rate on yield, grade, and disease incidence of peanut with subsurface drip irrigation. Peanut Science. 31(1)54-58. Interpretive Summary: Typically, peanut has been pla Row Orientation and Seeding Rate on Yield, Grade, and Disease Incidence of Peanut with Subsurface Drip Irrigation nted in a single row orientation. However, current research has shown that twin-row orientations have higher pod yields and less disease than the single row orientations. Also, maintaining plant populations would reduce the risk of disease. All research to establish twin-row orientation and seeding populations had been conducted on non-irrigated or overhead sprinkler irrigated areas. Subsurface drip irrigation on peanut is relatively new concept and there is no information on the plant population density or row orientation for this type of irrigation system. A study was conducted in Sasser, GA to determine the yield, grade, and disease incidence of peanut with different row orientations and plant populations. Row orientations consisted of single row, twin row, and diamond pattern. Plant populations were at the recommended rates. Irrigations with subsurface drip irrigation were scheduled daily to replace the estimated water use of peanut. Irrigations were not scheduled if rainfall exceeded the estimated water use of the plants. Collected data showed that twin row orientation had the highest pod yield compared with the other row orientations (single and diamond). There was no difference in market grades for row orientations for either seeding rate. There was a higher incidence of disease in the single row orientation compared with the diamond or the twin row orientation. The lowest disease incidence was in the diamond row orientation. There was no difference in kernel size distributions within the row orientations. This study shows that peanuts planted in a twin-row orientation and planted at the recommended rate had the best pod yield and market grade when irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation.
Technical Abstract: Various plant row orientations (twin, single and multi-row) and plant densities have been studied extensively on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using overhead irrigation or dryland systems. There is no information describing the effects of various row patterns or plant density on the yield or grade of peanut with subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three plant-row orientations and two plant populations on the pod yield, market grade, and disease incidence of peanut when irrigated with SDI. A 2-year study was conducted on a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults) soil in Sasser, GA during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. The three row orientations consisted of single, twin, and multi-row (diamond) planted at two populations in a split block design replicated three times. Seeds were planted at the recommended rate (1.0R) and half the recommended rate (0.5R). Plots were irrigated daily (rainfall dependant) to replace estimated daily evapotranspiration (ETa). Twin row orientation had the highest pod yield with 5407 kg ha-1 compared with the other row orientations which averaged 4897 kg ha-1. Market grade (total sound mature kernels, TSMK) was the same for all row orientations (74.5%) independent of seeding rate. Pod yield was 8% greater for the 1.0R seeding rate compared with the 0.5R seeding