|Burrin, Douglas - Doug|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2003
Publication Date: 10/1/2003
Citation: BURRIN, D.G., STOLL, B. SPLANCHNIC PROTEIN AND AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN GROWING ANIMALS. BOOK CHAPTER. Mersmann, H. J., Burrin, D.B., editors.Biology of Metabolism of Growing Animals. 2003. Interpretive Summary: Interpretive Summary not needed for this 115.
Technical Abstract: There is considerable evidence that the splanchnic tissues, namely liver and gut, play a major role in the regulation of whole body protein and amino acid metabolism. Given their anatomical design for assimilation of food by the host, these tissues metabolize in first-pass a significant proportion of the dietary amino acids via protein synthesis and oxidation and thereby limit the quantity and alter the pattern of amino acids for systemic availability. This substantial 'metabolic cost' incurred by splanchnic tissues is in large part related to the numerous critical physiological functions they perform for the mammalian host, such as ureagenesis, gluconeogensis, and digestion. However, these tissues also play a key regulatory role by transmitting endocrine, immune and neural signals in response to the diet and environment, which in turn determine the rates of peripheral tissue metabolism and growth. Despite recent progress in the studies of the liver, we know little about the intracellular signaling and biochemical basis for amino acid metabolism in the gut tissues and how this is regulated by extracellular factors. However, it is apparent that amino acids function not only as substrates, but as extracellular signals that influence cell functions, such as protein turnover, proliferation, apoptosis, cell volume and redox status.