Submitted to: Wildlife Disease Association Annual Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/11/2003
Publication Date: 8/11/2003
Citation: Waters, W.R., Palmer, M.V., Whipple, D.L., Slaughter, R.E., Jones, S.L., Minion, F.C. 2003. Immune responses of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginians) to mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccination [abstract]. Wildlife Disease Association. p. 146.
Technical Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the cellular immune response of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to live Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination. In vitro proliferative and interferon-g responses to M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) were detected beginning 9 days postvaccination. Responses to M. avium PPD, however, generally exceeded responses to M. bovis PPD. Interferon-g responses to M. avium PPD were not detected prior to vaccination or by non-vaccinated deer, indicating that vaccination with M. bovis BCG boosted prior quiescent M. avium sensitization. Both CD4+ and gd T cells from vaccinated deer proliferated in response to M. bovis PPD stimulation. Intradermal administration of M. bovis PPD resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increases in skin thickness of vaccinated deer beginning 24 hrs postinjection. Early reactions (i.e., 24 hrs postinjection) were characterized by edema and minimal mononuclear cell infiltration whereas later reactions (i.e., 72 hrs postinjection) were more typical of delayed type hypersensitive reactions. Upon in vitro activation with pokeweed mitogen, CD44 expression (i.e., mean flourescence intensity) increased and CD62L expression decreased on lymphocytes from deer regardless of vaccination status. Likewise, M. bovis PPD stimulation of lymphocytes from vaccinated deer resulted in increased CD44 fluorescence and decreased CD62L fluorescence. In summary, these findings demonstrate the potential of an IFN-g-based assay to detect mycobacterial sensitization of white-tailed deer, the presence of cross-reactive M. avium responses that may confound M. bovis diagnosis, and expected alterations in CD44 and CD62L expression upon in vitro stimulation of white-tailed deer lymphocytes.