Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/30/2000
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released 'Jaguar', a black seeded dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Jaguar is from a cross between the black and navy bean breeding lines, B90122 and N90616, respectively. Jaguar was grown at 26 locations from 1995-1999, had an average yield of 26.3 hundredweight, and exceeded the yield of all entries in the respective tests. Jaguar outyielded other black bean varieties under narrow row (20 inches) conditions. Jaguar is an upright Type IIa, short-vine indeterminant growth habit cultivar. Plants are erect and upright in appearance and exhibit superb lodging resistance. Jaguar has a notable agronomic appeal due to its upright growth, ability to set pods high in the plant canopy, and bright "straw" color of mature plants at harvest. Jaguar carries the I gene for resistance to bean common mosaic virus, CO-1 and CO-2 gene combination for resistance to the anthracnose disease races prevalent in Michigan, and the Ur-3 rust resistance gene. Jaguar has good tolerance to white mold disease but is susceptible to common bacterial blight. Jaguar has acceptable texture characteristics and within the range of texture scores judged acceptable for thermally processed black beans. Jaguar's tolerance to white mold, the most threatening disease to dry bean production potential in Michigan and the Great Lakes Region of the U.S., reduces the need to use costly fungicides; thus, aiding in protecting the environment. The high yield of Jaguar may increase profits for small farmers who generally rely on a good production to offset profit risks due to a reduced farm size compared to large-scale operations.
Technical Abstract: Jaguar black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated from the black and navy bean breeding lines, B90211 and N90616, a cross made in 1992. Jaguar was developed cooperatively by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and USDA/ARS. Jaguar was released in 2000 and is a notably upright, midseason, indeterminant Type IIa cultivar. Jaguar was yield tested (26 locations) from 1995 to 1999 and averaged 2,946 kg ha**-1 which exceeded the yield of all entries in the respective tests at locations in Michigan, New York, and Washington. Plants of Jaguar average 55 cm in height and have exceptional lodging resistance. Jaguar has purple flowers and blooms 48 d after planting and matures on average 93 days after planting. Jaguars no. of days to maturity is similar to the popular variety T-39 and Black Jack; two days earlier than Phantom, and four to five days earlier than the full-season varieties Midnight and Blackhawk. Jaguar has the typical opaque eblack seeds characteristic of black bean varieties; the seeds average 21 g 100 seed**-1. Jaguar has acceptable and above average canning quality. Jaguar has a slightly lighter cooked bean color than other black bean cultivars but is similar to them for the mass ratio characteristics. Jaguar has I gene resistance to bean common mosaic virus, and the CO-1 and CO-2 genes for resistance to anthracnose. This gene combination conditions resistance to the alpha race (race 17), the new alpha Brazil (race 89), and races 7, 65, and 73 of anthracnose. Jaguar has the Ur-3 and several minor rust resistance genes which confer essential immunity to all indigenous rust races prevalent in Michigan. Jaguar has a good level of resistance to white mold disease and shows the same level of tolerance as T-39. Jaguar is susceptible to common blight.