Location: Emerging Pests and Pathogens Research
Project Number: 8062-22000-023-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Feb 26, 2022
End Date: Feb 25, 2027
Objective 1: Identify and characterize soybean cyst nematode (SCN) populations in newly detected regions in New York. (NP303, C1, PS1B) Objective 2: Discover and characterize genes and proteins regulating the interactions between potato and its associated pathogens. (NP303, C2, PS2A) Sub-Objective 2.A: Characterize AIM-containing effector protein-encoding genes from PCN and their associated host proteins contributing to nematode parasitism or virulence. Sub-Objective 2.B: Investigate a role of autophagy in potato diseases caused by other invasive potato pathogens. Objective 3: Investigate novel or improved strategies to manage potato cyst nematodes and/or other invasive potato pathogens. (NP303, C3, PS3A) Sub-Objective 3.A: Determine the resistance of breeding potato clones as well as wild potato clones to G. rostochiensis pathotypes. Sub-Objective 3.B: Clone the novel R gene present in the broad-spectrum resistant clone Y1-5. Sub-Objective 3.C: Determine the resistance of wild potato clones to G. pallida.
In general, nematodes and other invasive pathogens of potato and soybean crops cause severe yield loss, and effective control measures are often lacking. In addition, most nematicides are no longer available; thus alternative control strategies for emerging nematode species and pathotypes are critically needed. New plant biotechnologies will likely provide the basis for the development of novel methods of controlling nematode and other invasive pathogens, but the success of these methods will be dependent upon a complete understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. One approach is to identify and characterize soybean cyst nematode (SCN) populations in newly detected regions in New York. An extensive statewide SCN survey in NY will be condicted and soli samples will be analyzed to determine SCN population densities. A modified HG type test will be used to determine the virulence phenotypes of selected SCN pouplations. The data on SCN population density and virulence diversity will be used to develop recommendations on SCN management in New York. A second approach is to discover and characterize genes and proteins regulating the interactions between potato and its associated pathogens. AIM-containing effector protein-encoding genes from potato cyst nematodes (PCN) that potentially target the host autophagy machinery will be cloned and characterized by multiple technologies to better understand the function of these effectors in nematode parasitism and virulence. The third approach is to investigate novel or improved strategies to manage potato cyst nematodes and/or other invasive potato pathogens. Working with potato breeders we will continue to use bioassays to evaluate breeding clones and wild potato germplasm for nematode resistance. We will conduct nematode phenotyping of the Y1-5 F1 population and use a RenSeq approach coupled with long-read PacBio SMRT sequencing to identify the novel resistance gene(s) present in the wild potato clone Y1-5. Conceptually novel information on the population dynamics of nematode and other invasive pests of potato and soybean crops, and on host–pathogen interactions will aid in the development of new effective biologically-based disease control strategies. Novel genes and germplasm for disease resistance that are identified will accelerate resistance breeding in potatoes and disease resistant cultivars developed through conventional breeding and genetic engineering can be transferred readily to customers.