Objective 1: Determine postprandial lipoprotein and lipidomic responses to time restricted meal patterns in overweight-obese humans and explore variables that modulate these responses. Objective 2: Define the impact of dietary fats of differing fatty acid composition upon postprandial lipoprotein type and concentrations in healthy humans in response to multiple meals and explore variables that modulate these responses. Objective 3: Determine the effects of specific foods with differing fatty acid compositions on the lipidomic signatures of postprandial lipoproteins in healthy humans. Objective 4: Determine the impact of soil management practices on nutritional quality of plant and animal foods produced in the Northern Great Plains. Objective 5: Investigate whether agricultural production practices of crops important to the Northern Great Plains (e.g. pulses, animals fed local feedstuffs) alter nutritional outcomes important to humans such as (but not limited to) nutrient bioavailability, modulation and connection of soil and animal/human microbiomes, epigenetic alterations, satiety, food reinforcement, and/or alteration of clinical parameters.
The overarching theme of this project is to investigate determinants of postprandial (PP) metabolism with the goal reducing chronic disease risk. Although many aspects of diet and lifestyle influence metabolic status and disease trajectory during the lifespan, emerging findings suggest that there may be considerable influence of meal frequency and meal timing in disease prevention. Moreover, abundant data point to the role of dietary fat type as a major influence upon cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk trajectory. PP lipemia, a risk factor for CVD, is a common underpinning mechanism linking meal timing and dietary fat type. Most evaluations of the effect of dietary fats on CVD disease risk rely on measures obtained in the fasting state, but people exist primarily in a PP state. Recently, time restricted eating has gained substantial attention; however, we do not know how this form of meal patterning impacts PP lipemia. As well, few data have examined the compounding effect of multiple meals and fats of different fatty acid composition on PP lipemia. In this work, we will identify the role of dietary patterning and specified dietary fats on PP lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The novel results of these innovative investigations will provide enhanced understanding of the influence of meal timing and dietary fatty acid composition in optimizing health and will inform evidence-based dietary recommendations. These studies take advantage of our demonstrated expertise in the successful completion of clinical trials combined with our expertise in cutting edge lipidomic analysis.
Scientists in Grand Forks, North Dakota, are determining the impact of eating saturated fats vs polyunsaturated fats upon plasma lipoproteins such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The research in this objective includes a clinical study coupled with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry analysis of isolated lipoproteins. The clinical study protocol was developed, the Institutional Review Board approval obtained, and the study initiated with two participants out of the 16 needed completing the required treatments. This research will aid in determining how different dietary fats may modify CVD risk. ARS researchers in Grand Forks, North Dakota, are actively participating in the ARS Grand Synergies projects Dairy Agriculture for People and Planet and the Beef Systems Grand Challenge. Scientists are analyzing hundreds of samples from research projects to evaluate how breed and management strategies impact the nutritional quality of milk and beef. In this past year, scientists specifically examined the impact of forage upon the branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) composition in Holstein cows. BCFA are bioactive fatty acids in milk and increasing the content of BCFA in milk may improve the health properties of milk. The resulting data demonstrate that forage vs starch concentrate increases the BCFA content of milk; however, variation in BCFA responses indicate that factors such as the cow’s genetic background and its microbiome are more important influences on BCFA concentrations in milk. Moreover, it was found that BCFA content of milk was inversely related to the concentration of saturated fatty acids that are associated with elevated CVD risk. ARS scientists in Grand Forks, North Dakota, completed the data analysis from a clinical study investigating the impact of dietary fat type upon the body’s responses in energy metabolism and satiety following a single meal. This research tested the hypothesis that the type of dietary fat eaten in a single meal increases energy expenditure and satiety, endpoints that influence the development of obesity. This research study used five types of fats including saturated fat as cream, monounsaturated fats as olive oil, polyunsaturated fats as sunflower oil, flaxseed oil, and fish oil. This research demonstrated that dietary fat type has no immediate, appreciable differences upon energy metabolism and satiety in people. Further research is needed to determine the impacts of dietary fat type following long term consumption. ARS scientists in Grand Forks, North Dakota, completed a clinical study investigating the impact of egg intake upon CVD risk markers in people eating a Mediterranean diet (Med Diet). A Med Diet decreases plaque causing lipoproteins and CVD risk. It is unknown how high cholesterol intake within a Med Diet will affect these parameters. The objective of this project was to evaluate the daily inclusion of whole eggs, a high cholesterol food, in the Med Diet on lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Daily intake of a Med Diet meal pattern or an average American diet without whole eggs reduced blood lipid and/or lipoprotein concentrations associated with CVD risk; addition of daily egg intake blunted these reductions. However, the data showed that responses varied widely between people, a finding that needs further research and indicates the need for personalized diets. Scientists at Grand Forks, North Dakota, are collaborating with ARS scientists from Boston, Massachusetts, to determine how a person’s individual genetic background influences the response to diet. These scientists are investigating the impact of APOAII gene differences upon lipid metabolites in the blood. ARS researchers in Grand Forks, North Dakota, are laying the fundamental groundwork for the nutrition component of the Healthy Soils, Healthy Foods, Healthy People initiative in collaboration with ARS scientists in Fargo, North Dakota, and Mandan, North Dakota. This initiative will result in enhanced farming methods and food processing methods for improving the nutritional quality of foods. This year’s past activities include the search for and hire of a nutrition scientist for this initiative and the standing up of the laboratory located in Fargo, North Dakota.
1. Identified determinants of bioactive fatty acids in milk. Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive fatty acids in milk and increasing the content of BCFA in milk may improve the health properties of milk. As part of the ARS Grand Synergies project Dairy Agriculture for People and Planet, ARS scientists in Grand Forks, North Dakota, demonstrated that increasing the forage amount in feed increases the BCFA content of milk from Holstein cows; however, variation in BCFA responses indicate that factors such as the cow’s genetic background and its microbiome may be more important influences on BCFA concentrations in milk. Moreover, it was found that the BCFA content of milk was inversely related to the concentration saturated fatty acids that are associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risk. This research will benefit producers and consumers of dairy and beef, human nutrition scientists, and dairy science/dairy nutrition scientists.
2. Daily egg intake reduces the benefits of a Mediterranean diet. Eating a Mediterranean diet (Med Diet) meal pattern can reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) by reducing circulating blood lipids, but it was not known whether daily egg intake would blunt these responses. ARS scientists in Grand Forks, North Dakota, completed a clinical, controlled-feeding study investigating the impact of daily egg intake upon CVD risk markers in people eating a Med Diet meal pattern. Daily intake of a Med Diet meal pattern without eggs reduced blood lipid and/or lipoprotein concentrations associated with CVD risk, but addition of daily egg intake blunted these reductions. However, the data showed that responses varied widely between people, a finding that needs further research and indicates the need for personalized diets. This research will benefit physicians, nutrition scientists, related health professionals, and the American consumer.
3. Impact of different dietary fats on energy metabolism and satiety. Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and intake of specific types of dietary fats may play a role in reducing obesity. ARS scientists in Grand Forks, North Dakota, tested the hypothesis that the type of dietary fat type eaten in a single meal increases energy expenditure and satiety, endpoints that influence the development of obesity. This research study used five common types of fats including saturated fat as cream, monounsaturated fats as olive oil, polyunsaturated fats as sunflower oil, flaxseed oil, and fish oil. This research indicates that dietary fat type produces no immediate, appreciable differences upon energy metabolism and satiety in people. These data will be useful for nutrition scientists and other scientists studying the causes and prevention of obesity.
Mehus, A.A., Rust, B.M., Idso, J.P., Hanson, B.K., Zeng, H., Yan, L., Bukowski, M.R., Picklo, M.J. 2020. Time-restricted feeding mice a high-fat diet induces a unique lipidomic profile. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 88. Article 108531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108531.
Picklo, M.J., Vallee Marcotte, B., Bukowski, M.R., Rust, B.M., Guenard, F., Vohl, M. 2021. Identification of phenotypic lipidomic signatures in response to long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in humans. Journal of the American Heart Association. 10. Article 18126. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018126.
Neijat, M., Zacek, P., Picklo, M.J., House, J.D. 2020. Lipidomic characterization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species of egg yolk lipid derived from hens fed flaxseed oil and marine algal oil. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 161. Article 102178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2020.102178.
Bukowski, M.R., Picklo, M.J. 2021. Simple, rapid lipidomic analysis of triacylglycerols in bovine milk by infusion-electrospray mass spectrometry. Lipids. 56:243-255. https://doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12292.
Cleveland, B.M., Gao, G., Radler, L.M., Picklo, M.J. 2020. Hepatic fatty acid and transcriptome profiles during the transition from vegetable- to fish oil-based diets in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Lipids. https://doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12287.
Casperson, S.L., Conrad, Z., Raatz, S., Derner, J.D., Roemmich, J.N., Jahns, L.A., Picklo, M.J. 2020. Impact of beef consumption on saturated fat intake in the United States adult population: Insights from modeling the influences of bovine genetics and nutrition. Meat Science. 169. Article e108225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108225.