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ARS Home » Plains Area » Grand Forks, North Dakota » Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center » Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research » Research » Research Project #436648

Research Project: Food Factors, Meal Patterns, and Lipoproteins

Location: Dietary Prevention of Obesity-related Disease Research

Project Number: 3062-53000-001-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Jun 10, 2019
End Date: Jun 9, 2024

Objective 1: Determine postprandial lipoprotein and lipidomic responses to time restricted meal patterns in overweight-obese humans and explore variables that modulate these responses. Objective 2: Define the impact of dietary fats of differing fatty acid composition upon postprandial lipoprotein type and concentrations in healthy humans in response to multiple meals and explore variables that modulate these responses. Objective 3: Determine the effects of specific foods with differing fatty acid compositions on the lipidomic signatures of postprandial lipoproteins in healthy humans. Objective 4: Determine the impact of soil management practices on nutritional quality of plant and animal foods produced in the Northern Great Plains. Objective 5: Investigate whether agricultural production practices of crops important to the Northern Great Plains (e.g. pulses, animals fed local feedstuffs) alter nutritional outcomes important to humans such as (but not limited to) nutrient bioavailability, modulation and connection of soil and animal/human microbiomes, epigenetic alterations, satiety, food reinforcement, and/or alteration of clinical parameters.

The overarching theme of this project is to investigate determinants of postprandial (PP) metabolism with the goal reducing chronic disease risk. Although many aspects of diet and lifestyle influence metabolic status and disease trajectory during the lifespan, emerging findings suggest that there may be considerable influence of meal frequency and meal timing in disease prevention. Moreover, abundant data point to the role of dietary fat type as a major influence upon cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk trajectory. PP lipemia, a risk factor for CVD, is a common underpinning mechanism linking meal timing and dietary fat type. Most evaluations of the effect of dietary fats on CVD disease risk rely on measures obtained in the fasting state, but people exist primarily in a PP state. Recently, time restricted eating has gained substantial attention; however, we do not know how this form of meal patterning impacts PP lipemia. As well, few data have examined the compounding effect of multiple meals and fats of different fatty acid composition on PP lipemia. In this work, we will identify the role of dietary patterning and specified dietary fats on PP lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The novel results of these innovative investigations will provide enhanced understanding of the influence of meal timing and dietary fatty acid composition in optimizing health and will inform evidence-based dietary recommendations. These studies take advantage of our demonstrated expertise in the successful completion of clinical trials combined with our expertise in cutting edge lipidomic analysis.