Location: Nutrition, Growth and Physiology
Project Number: 3040-31000-097-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Aug 1, 2017
End Date: Jul 31, 2022
Objective 1: Determine the effects of dietary changes on efficiency of growth and nutrient utilization of beef cattle and swine. Sub-objective 1A: Prediction of dry matter intake from neutral detergent fiber concentration. Sub-objective 1B: Determine the effects of feed additives on feed efficiency. Sub-objective 1C: Evaluate the use of an antibiotic alternative in swine. Objective 2: Improve determination of dynamic changes in nutrient requirements as the animal's physiological status changes to allow for timed nutrient delivery. Objective 3: Use novel forage systems for growing and maintaining beef cattle. Objective 4: Determine metabolic and physiological mechanisms responsible for variation in feed efficiency that is under genetic control. Sub-objective 4A: Evaluate genetic relationships with feed efficiency. Sub-objective 4B: Effects of metabolites and hormones on feed efficiency. Sub-objective 4C: Relationships between mitochondrial function and feed efficiency. Objective 5: Determine the environmental factors that contribute to the variation in feeding behavior, growth, and well-being of livestock. Sub-objective 5A: Novel methods for early detection of illness. Sub-objective 5B: Relationships between swine feeding behavior with feeder size and placement. Sub-objective 5C: Effects of weather on cattle well-being and feeding behavior.
Feed costs represent the single largest input in both beef and swine production; however, less than 20% of the energy from feed is converted to edible product. Improving the efficiency that feed is converted to animal products has the potential to improve the economic efficiency of animal production while also improving the sustainability of animal agriculture. To maximize feed efficiency the correct profile of nutrients are matched to meet an animal’s needs for its current biological status (growth, pregnancy, lactation, previous nutrient history, and disease). In order to provide the correct profile of nutrients, the nutrient composition of feeds and the dynamic nutrient requirements of the animal must both be identified and then synchronized. There is genetic variation among animals in their ability to utilize feed. Multiple genes are associated with the regulation of feed intake, weight gain, and the utilization of ingested nutrients. Differential expression of these genes results in variation of feed efficiency among animals within populations, and these genetic differences potentially change the nutrient requirements of the animal. Identifying the role of nutrition in regulating gene expression and the mechanisms by which efficient animals utilize nutrients is needed to develop nutrition management strategies. In addition to variation in physiological responses, there is a need to understand genetic and environmental variation in animal feeding behavior that lead to variation in nutrient utilization.