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Philip A Fay

Research Ecologist




Philip A. Fay

Research Ecologist


Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory

808 E Blackland Rd.

Temple, TX76502


Voice: (254) 770 6533

Fax: (254) 770 6561





Kansas State University, Bachelor of Science, Biology, 1982

Northern Arizona University, Master of Science, Biology, 1987

Kansas State University, Doctorate, Biology, 1992

Research Interests   (Vita)

Ecosystem ecology of grasslands- soil and plant carbon and water relations, primary productivity, and their responses to rising greenhouse gas (CO2) concentrations and temperature and precipitation variability.


Current Research Projects

Lysimeter CO2 Gradient Experiment

Nutrient Network

Rainfall Manipulation Plot (RaMP) Experiment (Konza Prairie Biological Station)




Laboratory Personnel


Anne Gibson

Alicia Naranjo

Rob Heckman

Jonathan Colen



Virginia Jin

Mike Aspinwall

Briana Whittaker

Albina Khasanova

Lara Reichmann

Eileen Wyza

Quinn Hiers

Evan Craine

Madison Gargaro

Ben Brooks

Logan Zwerneman





Hautier Y, Isbell F, Borer ET et al. (2018) Local loss and spatial homogenization of plant diversity reduce ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2, 50-56.

Yu C-L, Hui D, Deng Q, Kudjo Dzantor E, Fay PA, Shen W, Luo Y (2017) Responses of switchgrass soil respiration and its components to precipitation gradient in a mesocosm study. Plant and Soil,, 420, 105-117.

Schwinning S, Meckel H, Reichmann LG, Polley HW, Fay PA (2017) Accelerated development in Johnsongrass seedlings (Sorghum halepense) suppresses the growth of native grasses through size-asymmetric competition. PLoS ONE, 12, e0176042.

Harpole WS, Sullivan LL, Lind EM et al. (2017) Out of the shadows: multiple nutrient limitations drive relationships among biomass, light and plant diversity. Functional Ecology, 31, 1839-1846.

Deng Q, Aras S, Yu C-L et al. (2017) Effects of precipitation changes on aboveground net primary production and soil respiration in a switchgrass field. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 248, 29-37.

Collins HP, Fay PA, Kimura E, Fransen S, Himes A (2017) Intercropping with Switchgrass Improves Net Greenhouse Gas Balance in Hybrid Poplar Plantations on a Sand Soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 81, 781-795.

Biederman L, Mortensen B, Fay P et al. (2017) Nutrient addition shifts plant community composition towards earlier flowering species in some prairie ecoregions in the US Central Plains. PLoS ONE, 12, e0178440.

Aspinwall MJ, Fay PA, Hawkes CV et al. (2017) Intraspecific variation in precipitation responses of a widespread C4 grass depends on site water limitation. Journal of Plant Ecology, 10, 310-321.

Tredennick AT, Adler PB, Grace JB et al. (2016) Comment on "Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness". Science, 351, 457-457.

Taylor SH, Lowry DB, Aspinwall MJ, Bonnette JE, Fay PA, Juenger TE (2016) QTL and Drought Effects on Leaf Physiology in Lowland Panicum virgatum. BioEnergy Research, 1-19.

Reichmann LG, Schwinning S, Polley HW, Fay PA (2016) Traits of an invasive grass conferring an early growth advantage over native grasses. Journal of Plant Ecology, rtw014.

Polley HW, Collins HP, Reichmann LG, Fay PA (2016a) CO2 and soil water potential as regulators of the growth and N fraction derived from fixation of a legume in tallgrass prairie communities. Plant and Soil, 409, 361-370.

Polley HW, Gibson AE, Fay PA, Wilsey BJ (2016b) Biotic Regulation of CO2 Uptake–Climate Responses: Links to Vegetation Properties. Ecosystems, 19, 1376-1385.  

Lovell JT, Shakirov EV, Schwartz S et al. (2016) Promises and challenges of eco-physiological genomics in the field: Tests of drought responses in switchgrass. Plant Physiology, 172, 734-748. 

Harpole WS, Sullivan LL, Lind EM et al. (2016) Addition of multiple limiting resources reduces grassland diversity. Nature, 537, 93-96.

Grace JB, Anderson TM, Seabloom EW et al. (2016) Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness. Nature, 529(7586), 390-393.

Flores-Moreno H, Reich PB, Lind EM et al. (2016) Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Science, 371.

Fay PA, Guntenspergen GR, Olker JH, Johnson WC (2016) Climate change impacts on freshwater wetland hydrology and vegetation cover cycling along a regional aridity gradient. Ecosphere, 7, e01504.

Estiarte M, Vicca S, Penuelas J et al. (2016) Few multiyear precipitation-reduction experiments find a shift in the productivity-precipitation relationship. Global Change Biology, 22, 2570-2581.

Vico G, Thompson SE, Manzoni S et al. (2015) Climatic, ecophysiological, and phenological controls on plant ecohydrological strategies in seasonally dry ecosystems. Ecohydrology, 8, 660-681. 

Seabloom EW, Borer ET, Buckley YM et al. (2015) Plant species’ origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands. Nature Communications, 6, 7710.

Procter AC, Gill RA, Fay PA, Polley HW, Jackson RB (2015) Soil carbon responses to past and future CO2 in three Texas prairie soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 83, 66-75.

Polley HW, Derner JD, Jackson RT, Gill RA, Procter AC, Fay PA (2015) Plant community change mediates the response of foliar ?15N to CO2 enrichment in mesic grasslands. Oecologia, 178, 591-601.


Fay PA, Newingham BA, Polley HW, Morgan JA, Lecain DR, Nowak RS, Smith SD (2015) Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients. AoB Plants, 7.


Fay PA, Prober SM, Harpole WS et al. (2015) Grassland productivity limited by multiple nutrients. Nature Plants, 1.


Fay PA, Reichmann LG, Aspinwall MJ, Khasanova AR, Polley HW (2015) A CO2 Concentration Gradient Facility for Testing CO2 Enrichment and Soil Effects on Grassland Ecosystem Function. JoVE, e53151.

Procter AC, Ellis JC, Fay PA, Polley HW, Jackson RB (2014) Fungal community responses to past and future atmospheric CO2 differ by soil type. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 80, 7364-7377.

Meyer E, Aspinwall MJ, Lowry DB, Palacio-Mejia JD, Logan TL, Fay PA, Juenger TE (2014) Integrating transcriptional, metabolomic, and physiological responses to drought stress and recovery in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Bmc Genomics, 15.


Polley HW, Derner JD, Jackson RB, Wilsey BJ, Fay PA (2014) Impacts of climate change drivers on C4 grassland productivity: Scaling driver effects through the plant community. Journal of Experimental Botany 65(13):3415-3424.    (PDF)


MacDougall AS, Bennett JR, Firn J, Seabloom EW, Borer ET, Lind EM, Orrock JL, Harpole W, Hautier Y, Adler PB, Cleland E, Davies K, Melbourne B, Prober SM, Bakker JD, Fay PA, Jin VL, Kendig A, La Pierre KJ, Moore J, Morgan J, Stevens CJ (2014) Anthropogenic-based regional-scale factors most consistently explain plot-level exotic diversity in grasslands. Global Ecology and Biogeorgraphy 23:802-810.


Hautier Y, Seabloom E, Borer E, Adler P, Harpole S, Hillebrand H, Lind E, MacDougall A, Stevens C, Bakker JD, Buckley Y, Chu C, Collins SL, Daleo P, Damschen EI, Davies K, Fay PA, Firn J, Gruner DS, Jin VL, Klein JA, Knops JM, La Pierre KJ, Li W, McCulley R, Melbourne B, Moore JL, O'Halloran LR, Prober SM, Risch AC, Sankaran M, Schuetz M, Hector A (2014) Eutrophication weakens stabilizing effects of diversity in natural grasslands. Nature 508:521-525.


Vicca S, Bahn M, Estiarte M, van Loon EE, Vargas R, Alberti G, Ambus P,  Arain MA, Beier C, Bentley LP, Borken W, Buchmann N, Collins SL, de Dato G, Dukes JS, Escolar C, Fay PA, Guidolotti G, Hanson PJ, Kahmen A, Kroel-Dulay G, Ladreiter-Knauss T, Larsen KS, Lellei-Kovacs E, Lebrija-Trejos E, Maestre FT, Marhan S, Marshall M, Meir P, Miao Y, Muhr J, Niklaus PA, Ogaya R, Penuelas J, Poll C, Rustad LE, Savage K, Schindlbacher A, Schmidt IK, Smith AR, Sotta ED, Suseela V, Tietema A, van Gestel N, van Straaten O, Wan S, Weber U, Janssens IA (2014) Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments. Biogeosciences 11:2991-3013.


Seabloom E, Borer ET, Buckley Y, Cleland E, Davies K, Firn J, Harpole S, Hautier Y, Lind E, MacDougall A, Orrock JL, Prober SM, Adler P, Alberti J, Anderson TM, Bakker JD, Biederman LA, Blumenthal DM, Brown CS, Brudvig LA, Caldeira M, Chu C, Crawley MJ, Daleo P, Damschen EI, D'Antonio CM, Decrappeo NM, Dickman CR, Du G, Fay PA, Frater P, Gruner DS, Hagenah N, Hector A, Helm A, Hillebrand H, Hofmockel KS, Humphries HC, Iribarne O, Jin VL, Kay A, Kirkman KP, Klein JA, Knops JM, La Pierre KJ, Ladwig LM, Lambrinos JG, Leakey AD, Li Q, Li W, McCulley R, Melbourne B, Mitchell CE, Moore JL, Morgan J, Mortensen B, O'Halloran LR, Partel M, Pascual J, Pyke DA, Risch AC, Salguero-Gomez R, Sankaran M, Schuetz M, Simonsen A, Smith M, Stevens C, Sullivan L, Wardle GM, Wolkovich EM, Wragg PD, Wright J, Yang L (2013) Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: Is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness? Global Change Biology 19:3677-3687.


Rico C, Pittermann J, Polley HW (2013) The effect of sub-ambient to elevated (CO2)atm on vascular function in Helianthus annuus: Implications for plant response to climate change. New Phytologist 199:956-965.  (PDF)


Aspinwall MJ, Lowry DB, Taylor SH, Juenger TE, Hawkes CV, Johnson M-VV, Kiniry JR, Fay PA (2013) Productivity and leaf functional trait associations among genotypes of a dominant polyploidy C4 grass are linked to latitude of origin.  New Phytologist 199:966-980.  (PDF)


Jin VL, Haney RL, Fay PA, Polley HW (2013) Soil type and moisture regime control microbial C and N mineralization in grassland soils more than atmospheric CO2-induced changes in litter quality. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 58:172-180.  (PDF)


Grace JB, Adler PB, Seabloom EW, Borer ET, Hillebrand H, Hautier Y, Hector A, Harpole WS, O'Halloran LR, Anderson TM, Bakker JD, Brown CS, Buckley YM, Collins SL, Cottingham KL, Crawley MJ, Damschen EI, Davies KF, DeCrappeo NM, Fay PA, Firn J, Gruner DS, Hagenah N, Jin VL, Kirkman KP, Knops JMH, La Pierre KJ, Lambrinos JG, Melbourne BA, Mitchell CE, Moore JL, Morgan JW, Orrock JL, Prober SM, Stevens CJ, Wragg PD, Yang LH (2012) Response to Comments on "Productivity if a poor predictor of plant species richness" (technical comment). Science 335:1441-c.  (PDF)


Fay PA, Jin VL, Way DA, Potter KN, Gill RA, Jackson RB, Polley HW (2012) Soil-mediated effects of subambient to increased carbon dioxide on grassland productivity. Nature Climate Change 2:742-746.  (PDF)


Polley HW, Jin VL, Fay PA (2012) CO2-caused change in plant species composition rivals the shift in vegetation between mid-grass and tallgrass prairies. Global Change Biology 18:700-710.  (PDF)


Kiniry JR, Anderson LC, Johnson MV-V, Behrman KD, Brakie M, Burner D, Cordsiemon RL, Fay PA, Britschi FB, Houx II JH, Hawkes C, Juener T, Kaiser J, Keitt TH, Lloyd-Reilley J, Maher S, Raper R, Scott A, Shadow A, West C, Wu Y, Zibilske L (2012) Perennial biomass grasses and the Maxon-Dixon Line: Comparative productivity across latitudes in the Southern Great Plains. BioEnergy Research DOI: 10.1007/s12155-012-9254-7.  (PDF)


Polley HW, Jin VL, FAY PA (2012) Feedback from plant species change amplifies CO2 enhancement of grassland productivity. Global Change Biology 18:2813-2823.  (PDF)


Fay PA, Polley HW, Jin VL, Aspinwall MJ (2012) Productivity of well-watered Panicum virgatum does not increase with CO2 enrichment. Journal of Plant Ecology doi:10.1093/jpe/rts007.  (PDF)


Fay PA, Blair JM, Smith MD, Nippert JB, Carlisle JD, Knapp AK (2011) Relative effects of precipitation variability and warming on tallgrass prairie ecosystem function. Biogeosciences 8:3053-3068. (PDF)


Adler PB, Seabloom EW, Borer ET, Hillebrand H, Hautier Y, Hector A, Harpole WS, O'Halloran LR, Grace JB, Anderson TM, Bakker JD, Biederman LA, Brown CS, Buckley YM, Calabrese KF, Chu C-J, Cleland EE, Collins SL, Cottingham KL, Crawley MJ, Damschen EI, Davies KF, DeCrappeo NM, Fay PA, Firn J, Frater P, Gasarch EI, Gruner DS, Hagenah N, HilleRisLambers J, Humphries H, Jin VL, Kay AD, Kirkman KP, Klein JA, Knops JMH, La Pierre KJ, Lambrinos JG, Li W, MacDougall AS, McCulley RL, Melbourne BA, Mitchell CE, Moore JL, Morgan JW, Mortensen B, Orrock JL, Prober SM, Pyke DA, Risch AC, Schuetz M, Smith MD, Stevens CJ, Sullivan LL, Wang G, Wragg PD, Wright JP, Yang LH (2011) Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness. Science 333(6050):1750-1753.   (PDF)


Kelley AM, Fay PA, Polley HW, Gill RA, Jackson, RB (2011) Atmospheric CO2 and soil extracellular enzyme activity: A meta-analysis and CO2 gradient experiment. Ecosphere 2(8):art96.  (PDF)


Firn J, Moore JL, MacDougall AS, Borer ET, Seabloom EW, HilleRisLambers J, Harpole WS, Cleland EE, Brown CS, Knops JMH, Prober SM, Pyke DA, Farrell KA, Bakker JD, O'Halloran LR, Adler PB, Collins SL, D'Antonio CM, Crawley MJ, Wolkovich EM, La Pierre KJ, Melbourne BA, Hautier Y, Morgan JW, Leakey ADB, Kay A, McCulley R, Davies K, Stevens CJ, Chu C-J, Holl KD, Klein JA, Fay PA, Hagenah N, Kirkman KP, Buckley YM (2011) Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in temperate grasslands. Ecology Letters 14:274-281. (PDF)


Izaurralde RC, Morgan JA, Thompson AM, FAY PA, Polley HW, Hatfield JL (2011) Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production. Agronomy Journal 103:371-381.  (PDF)

Manzoni S, Vico G, Katul G, Fay PA, Polley HW, Palmroth S, Porporato A (2011) Optimizing stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under water stress: A meta-analysis across plant functional types and climates. Functional Ecology doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2010.01822.x.  (PDF)

Manzoni S, Katul G, Fay PA, Polley HW, Porporato A (2011) Modeling the vegetation-atmosphere carbon dioxide and water vapor interactions along a controlled CO2 gradient. Ecological Modeling 222:653-665. (PDF)

Polley HW, Morgan JA, Fay PA (2011) Application of a conceptual framework to assess variability in rangeland responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Journal of Agricultural Science 149:1-14.  (PDF)

Johnson M-V, Kiniry JR, Sanchez H, Polley HW, Fay PA (2010) Comparing biomass yields of low-input high diversity communities with managed monocultures across the central United States. Bioenergy Research 3(4):353-361.  (PDF) 

Polley HW, Fay PA, Jin VL, Combs GF (2010) CO2 enrichment increases element concentrations in grass mixtures by changing species abundances. Plant Ecology doi:10.1007/s11258-010-9874-y.  (PDF)

Travers SE, Tang Z, Caragea D, Garrett KA, Hulbert SH, Leach JE, Bai J, Saleh A, Knapp AK, Fay PA, Nippert J, Schnable PS, Smith MD (2010) Variation in gene expression of Andropogon gerardii in response to altered environmental conditions associated with climate change. Journal of Ecology 98(2):374-383.  (PDF) 

Yang Y, Fang J, Fay PA, Bell JE, Ji C (2010) Rain use efficiency across a precipitation gradient on the Tibetan Plateau. Geophysical Research Letters 37:L15702, doi:10.1029/2010GL043920, 2010. (PDF)    

Fay PA,Schultz MJ (2009) Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings as affected by soil moisture variability. Acta Oecologica 35:679-684. (PDF 

Fay PA, Kelley AM, Procter AC, Jin VL, Jackson RB, Johnson HB, Polley HW (2009) Primary productivity and water balance of grassland vegetation on three soils in a continuous CO2 gradient: Initial results from the Lysimeter CO2 Gradient Experiment. Ecosystems 12:699-714. (PDF 

Nippert JB, Fay PA, Carlisle JD, Knapp AK, Smith MD (2009) Ecophysiological responses to two dominant grasses to altered temperature and precipitation regimes. Acta Oecologica 35:400-408. (PDF 

Fay PA (2009) Invited Commentary: Precipitation variability and primary productivity in water-limited systems: how plants 'leverage' precipitation to 'finance' growth. New Phytologist 181:5-8. (PDF 

Wilkinson M, Monson RK, Trahan N, Lee S, Brown E, Jackson RB, Polley HW, Fay PA, Fall R (2009) Leaf isoprene emission rate as a function of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Global Change Biology 15:1189-1200. (PDF 

Fay PA, Kaufman DM, Nippert JB, Carlisle JD, Harper CW (2008) Changes in grassland ecosystem function due to extreme rainfall events: implications for responses to climate change. Glob. Change Biol. 14:1600-1608.(PDF)

Hatfield J, Boote K, Fay P, Hahn L, Izaurralde C, Kimball BA, Mader T, Morgan J, Ort D, Polley W, Thomson A, Wolfe D (2008) Agriculture. In: Backlund P, Janetos A, Schimel DS (eds) The efects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States Washington, D.C., pp 21-74.

Knapp AK, Beier C, Briske DD, Classen AT, Luo Y, Reichstein M, Smith MD, Smith SD, Bell JE, Fay PA, Heisler JL, Leavitt SW, Sherry RA, Smith B, Weng E (2008) Consequences of more extreme precipitation regimes for terrestrial ecosystems. Bioscience 58:811-821. (PDF)

Polley HW, Johnson HB, Fay PA, Sanabria J (2008) Initial response of evapotranspiration from tallgrass prairie vegetation to CO2 at subambient to elevated concentrations. Functional Ecology 22:163-171. (PDF)

Nippert JB, Fay PA, Knapp AK (2007) Photosynthetic traits in C3 and C4 grassland species in mesocosm and field environments.   Environmental and Experimental Botany 60:412-420. (PDF)

Travers SE, Smith MD, Bai J, Hulbert SH, Leach JE, Schnable PS, KnappAK, Milliken GA, Fay PA, Saleh A, Garrett KA (2007) Ecological genomics: making the leap from model systems in the lab to native populations in the field. Frontiers in Ecology Environment 5:19-24. (PDF)

Porporato A, Vico G, Fay PA (2006) Superstatistics of hydro-climatic fluctuations and interannual ecosystem productivity. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L15402. (PDF)  

Fay PA, Throop HL (2005) Branching responses in Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae) following mechanical or gall damage to apical meristems and neighbor removal. American Journal of Botany 92:954-959. (PDF)

Harper CW, Blair JM, Fay PA, Knapp AK, Carlisle JD (2005) Increased rainfall variability and reduced rainfall amount decreases soil CO 2flux in a grassland ecosystem. Glob. Change Biol. 11:322-334. (PDF)

Huxman TE, Smith MD, Fay PA, Knapp AK, Shaw MR, Loik ME, Smith SD, Tissue DT, Zak JC, Weltzin JF, Pockman WT, Sala OE, Haddad BM, Harte J, Koch GW, Schwinning S, Small EE, Williams DG (2004) Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency. Nature 429:651-654. (PDF)  

Goodin DG, Fay PA, McHugh MM (2003) Climate variability at a tallgrass prairie site at multiple time scales: Konza Prairie Biological Station. In: Greenland D et al. (eds) Climatic Variability and Ecosystem Response. New York, Oxford University Press, pp. 411-423.  

Fay PA (2003) Insect diversity in two burned and grazed grasslands. Environmental Entomology 32:1099-1104. (PDF)

Fay PA, Carlisle JD, Knapp AK, Blair JM, Collins SL (2003) Productivity responses to altered rainfall patterns in a C4-dominated grassland. Oecologia 137:245-251. (PDF

Fay PA, Blair JM, Carlisle JD, Knapp AK (2003) Precipitation and terrestrial ecosystems: mesic grassland case study. In: Weltzin JF, McPherson GR (eds) Precipitation Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, pp 147-163.

Quist MC, Fay PA, Guy CS, Knapp AK, Rubenstein BN (2003) Military training effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities on a grassland military installation. Ecol. Applic. 13:432-442. (PDF

Weltzin JF, Loik ME, Schwinning S, Williams DG, Fay PA, Haddad BM, Harte J, Huxman TE, Knapp AK, Lin G, Pockman WT, Shaw MR, Small EE, Smith MD, Smith SD, Tissue DT, Zak JC (2003) Assessing the response of terrestrial ecosystems to potential changes in precipitation. Bioscience 53:941-952. 

Fay PA, Carlisle JD, Danner BN, Lett MS, McCarron JK, Stewart C, Knapp AK, Blair JM, Collins SL (2002) Altered rainfall patterns, gas exchange, and growth in grasses and forbs. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163:549-557. (PDF)

Goodin DG, Fay PA, McHugh MM (2002) Climate variability at a tallgrass prairie site at multiple time scales: Konza Prairie Biological Station. In: Greenland D, Fountain A, Goodin DG, Juday G, Lyons B, Smith R (eds) Climate variability and ecosystem response at long-term ecological research (LTER) sites. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 411-424.

Knapp AK, Fay PA, Blair JM, Collins SL, Smith MD, Carlisle JD, Harper CW, Danner BT, Lett MS, McCarron JK (2002) Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in a mesic grassland. Science 298:2202-2205. (PDF). 

Fay PA, Carlisle JD, Knapp AK, Blair JM, Collins SL (2000) Altering rainfall timing and quantity in a mesic grassland ecosystem: Design and performance of rainfall manipulation shelters. Ecosystems 3:308-319. (PDF

Throop HL, Fay PA (1999) Effects of fire, browsers and gallers on New Jersey tea (Ceanothus herbaceous) growth and reproduction. Am. Midl. Nat. 141:51-58. (PDF

Fay PA, Knapp AK (1998) Responses to short-term reductions in light in soybean leaves: effects of leaf position and drought stress. Int. J. Plant Sci. 159:805-811. (PDF

Hartnett DC, Fay PA (1998) Plant populations: patterns and processes. In: Knapp AK, Briggs JM, Hartnett DC, Collins SL (eds) Grassland Dynamics: Long-term ecological research in tallgrass prairie. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 81-100.

Knapp AK, Fay PA (1997) Plant strategies for coping with variable light regimes. In: Basra AS (ed) Mechanisms of environmental stress resistance in plants. Harwood Academic, Amsterdam, pp 191-212.

Fay PA, Hartnett DC, Knapp AK (1996) Plant tolerance of gall-insect attack and gall-insect performance. Ecology 77:521-534. (PDF

Fay PA, Knapp AK (1996) Photosynthetic and stomatal responses to variable light in a cool-season and a warm-season prairie forb. Int. J. Plant Sci. 157:303-308. (PDF

Fay PA, Knapp AK (1995) Stomatal and photosynthetic responses to shade in sorghum, soybean and. Phys. Plant. 94:613-620. (PDF). 

Fay PA, Samenus RJ (1993) Gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) mortality in a spring tallgrass prairie fire. Environ. Entomol. 22:1333-1337. (PDF

Fay PA, Hartnett DC, Knapp AK (1993) Increased photosynthesis and water potentials in Silphium integrifolium galled by cynipid wasps. Oecologia 93:114-120. (PDF

Fay PA, Hartnett DC (1991) Constraints on growth and allocation patterns of Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae) caused by a cynipid gall wasp. Oecologia 88:243-250. (PDF