Ion-specific effects are a central theme of biology because ions are fundamental to the composition and maintenance of life. However, experiments designed to determine ion-specific effects generally use salts, as opposed to ions, as statistical factors. This means accepting the co-variance of the co-ion(s) of the salt used to manipulate the ion(s) of interest. The result is that the effect of specific ions and their interactions cannot be determined as they are confounded with the potential combined effects of the co-varied ions. Because of this difficulty, the majority of research studies concerned with determining ion-specific effects exhibit statistical confounding - i.e., ion-specific effects cannot be determined.