Location: Livestock Issues ResearchTitle: A dose response investigation of a micronized porous ceramic particle to improve the health and performance of post-weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium
|DAVIS, EMILY - Texas Tech University|
|WALLACE, KAYLA - Texas Tech University|
|CRUZ-PENN, MICHAEL - Texas Tech University|
|PETRY, AMY - Texas Tech University|
|Carroll, Jeffery - Jeff Carroll|
|BALLOU, MICHAEL - Texas Tech University|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2022
Publication Date: 5/26/2022
Citation: Davis, E.M., Wallace, K.P., Cruz-Penn, M.J., Petry, A.L., Broadway, P.R., Sanchez, N.C., Carroll, J.A., Ballou, M.A. 2022. A dose response investigation of a micronized porous ceramic particle to improve the health and performance of post-weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Frontiers in Animal Science. 3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fanim.2022.872776.
Interpretive Summary: Clays have been included in livestock diets for decades to improve animal health and performance. The beneficial effects of feeding clays to livestock is mainly due to its ability to bind toxins. However, the benefit of including clay in livestock diets can vary depending on the type and form of clay used. Thermally processed clays known as ceramic clays may have more toxin absorbing action and may be better for animal health and performance. Therefore, scientists from Texas Tech University and ARS' Livestock Issues Research Unit collaborated on a study to evaluate using a ceramic clay in swine feed to reduce the impact of a Salmonella challenge in young pigs. Results from this study indicated that including ceramic clay in swine diets improved the health and performance of young pigs infected with Salmonella. Also, including ceramic clay in swine diets may be an intervention strategy along the farm-to-consumption pathway to reduce food borne illnesses. This data will be of interest to swine producers, swine nutritionist, and scientists working in the field of nutrition and animal health.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing increasing concentrations of PowerGuard (PG), a micronized ceramic particle, to recently weaned pigs on health and performance following a Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST) infection. Forty crossbred newly weaned barrows were weighed and transported 9 km from the Texas Tech University Swine Unit to the temperature-controlled pig barn at the Livestock Issues Research Unit of the USDA. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n=8): (1) Uninfected Control, no ST administered and no PG treatment (CON); (2) Infected Control, infected with ST but no PG treatment (ST); (3) PG0.05, infected with ST and supplemented with 0.05% PG; (4) PG0.25, infected with ST and supplemented with 0.25% PG; (5) PG0.50, infected with ST and supplemented with 0.50% PG. All pigs were enrolled on the same day, 21.5 ± 1.33 d of age, and upon arrival (considered d 0) to the facility were anesthetized briefly to insert temperature recording devices into the abdominal cavity. Pigs were offered feed and water ad libitum and were housed in stainless steel pens. Pigs in treatments ST, PG0.05, PG0.25, and PG0.50 were all infected by oral gavage with 1.75 x 10 exp 7 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium on d 7. Individual pig body weights and peripheral blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Pigs were harvested on d 21 and ileum and liver samples collected for histopathological analyses. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure in SAS (SAS 9.4, Cary, NC). There was no treatment difference for initial or final body weight (P=0.201), but there was a treatment difference for both feed disappearance (P=0.036) and ADG (P=0.037) from d 8 to d 21; whereas the PG0.25 and CON pigs had greater feed disappearance and ADG when compared to the ST and PG0.50 pigs. Further, there was a tendency (P=0.087) for a treatment difference in fecal score; whereas ST and PG0.50 treatments had more loose fecal scores than the CON and PG0.25 treatments. There was a treatment x time interaction for intraperitoneal temperature (P<0.0001); whereas the PG0.05, PG0.25, and PG0.50 treatments had attenuated febrile responses during the acute post-infection period when compared with the ST treatment. In addition, there was a treatment x time interaction for total leukocyte counts (P=0.007); whereas the PG0.05, PG0.25, and PG0.50 treatments had reduced leukocytosis post-infection when compared with the ST treatment. There was a treatment difference for villus height where the PG0.05 treatment had the shortest villi compared to all other treatments (P=0.048). In summary, supplementing PowerGuard at either 0.05 or 0.25% of the diet improved health and performance when pigs were infected with Salmonella Typhimurium.