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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Systematic Entomology Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #382580

Research Project: Systematics of Beetles, Flies, Moths and Wasps with an Emphasis on Agricultural Pests, Invasive Species, Biological Control Agents, and Food Security

Location: Systematic Entomology Laboratory

Title: Phenology, Development, and Parasitism of Allium Leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae), A Recent Invasive Species in the US

item LINGBEEK, BRANDON - Retired Non ARS Employee
item ROBERTS, DANA - Pennsylvania State University
item ELKNER, TIMOTHY - Pennsylvania State University
item Gates, Michael
item FLEISCHER, SHELBY - Pennsylvania State University

Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/14/2021
Publication Date: 5/27/2021
Citation: Lingbeek, B., Roberts, D., Elkner, T., Gates, M.W., Fleischer, S. 2021. Phenology, Development, and Parasitism of Allium Leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae), A Recent Invasive Species in the US. Environmental Entomology. 50(4):878-887.

Interpretive Summary: Leafmining flies can cause significant damage to a wide variety of crops, causing economic losses. The allium leafminer is a new invasive species in the USA attacking onions, garlic and leeks. We report on the biology of this fly and developed a method for rearing it in the lab. Two species of parasitic wasps that attack this fly are reported. This information will be useful to farmers growing these crops, ecologists, entomologists, and conservationaists.

Technical Abstract: Allium leafminer, Phytomyza gymnostoma (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is an invasive species first recorded the Western Hemisphere in 2015 and has expanded its range into northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states. Its host range encompasses Allium species grown for food and ornamentals, weedy species, species used for pollinator provisioning, and species of conservation concern. Using field and laboratory studies, we advanced methods for rearing, developed a phenology model for spring emergence, describe pupal development, and report on parasitism. Spring emergence was best detected by scouting wild alliums as opposed to emergence cages, and modeled using 350 degree-days above a lower threshold of 1.0oC. Spring adult flight occurred for about 5 weeks. Larval development required 22 and 20 days at 17.5 and 250C, respectively. Pupal development progressed along a color gradient, and an initial presence of fat cell clusters and an air bubble, followed by an exarate pupa. Pupal developed at 3-5% per day at 300C and reached 25% per day at 21.5oC, but development was not successful at 30oC. We documented two Chalcidoidea parasitoids, Halticoptera circulus (Walker) and Chrysocharis oscinidis Ashmead.