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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #382429

Research Project: Molecular Approaches to Control Intestinal Parasites that Affect the Microbiome in Swine and Small Ruminants

Location: Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory

Title: Docosahexaenoic acid prevented insulin resistance by modulating gut microbiome and promoting colonic peptide YY expression in diet-induced obesity mice

item CAO, WANXIU - Ocean University Of China
item Li, Robert
item CHIN, YAOXIAN - Hainan University
item WANG, YUMING - Ocean University Of China
item XUE, CHANGHU - Ocean University Of China
item TANG, QINGJUAN - Ocean University Of China

Submitted to: Food Science and Human Wellness
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2021
Publication Date: 8/1/2021
Citation: Cao, W., Li, R.W., Chin, Y., Wang, Y., Xue, C., Tang, Q. 2021. Docosahexaenoic acid prevented insulin resistance by modulating gut microbiome and promoting colonic peptide YY expression in diet-induced obesity mice. Food Science and Human Wellness.

Interpretive Summary: Long-term consumption of diets high in sucrose and fat is an important contributing factor for obesity, which is often accompanied by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and systemic inflammation. Natural products rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. These bioactive compounds also possess protective efficacies against parasitic infections in humans and animal models. DHA ameliorates host metabolic disorders in obese individuals. However, existing studies frequently focused on its role in preventing chronic inflammation. The mechanisms by which DHA regulate insulin resistance in the gut-adipose axis have not received sufficient scientific attentions. In this study, we attempted to examine the differences of fish oil rich in DHA and a DHA ethyl ester, in preventing diet-induced insulin resistance and reprogramming the gut microbiome. Our findings have demonstrated considerable beneficial effects of dietary intake of natural products rich in PUFA in managing metabolic disorders.

Technical Abstract: The mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves insulin resistance in obese individuals remain unclear. Here we used a diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model to investigate the effects of DHA-rich fish oil (DHA-FO) on host metabolic disorders and colonic microbiome. Our findings show that DHA-FO reduced fat deposition, regulated lipid profiles and alleviated insulin resistance in DIO mice. DHA-FO regulated intestinal epithelial barrier function and promoted peptide YY (PYY) secretion via the mediation of short-chain fatty acid receptor (FFAR2) in the colon. Furthermore, DHA reversed microbial dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet, including increasing the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and Lactobacillus, and suppressing the growth of Helicobacter, which subsequently modulated PYY expression. Gut linoleic acid metabolism significantly changed by DHA had a strong association with PYY expression (r > 0.80, p < 0.05). Our findings provided a mechanistic insight into DHA mediated insulin action on glucose metabolism.