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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Bioproducts Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #382275

Research Project: Bioproducts from Agricultural Feedstocks

Location: Bioproducts Research

Title: The improvement of texture properties and storage stability for kappa carrageenan in developing vegan gummy candies

item SONG, XINYU - Jiangnan University
item Chiou, Bor-Sen
item XIA, YIXUN - Jiangnan University
item CHEN, MAOSHEN - Jiangnan University
item LIU, FEI - Jiangnan University
item ZHONG, FANG - Jiangnan University

Submitted to: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/11/2021
Publication Date: 12/11/2021
Citation: Song, X., Chiou, B., Xia, Y., Chen, M., Liu, F., Zhong, F. 2021. The improvement of texture properties and storage stability for kappa carrageenan in developing vegan gummy candies. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 102(9):3693-3702.

Interpretive Summary: Gummy confections are made from carrageenan. However, they can be hard and brittle, which leads to unfavorable sensory properties. Incorporating carboxymethyl celluose, a gum used to thicken foods like ice cream, into the confections can lead to better sensory properties. Adding up to 20% carboxymethyl celluose resulted in softer and juicier confections. However, adding more carboxymethyl celluose led to confections that became too soft due to phase separation between carrageenan and carboxymethyl celluose.

Technical Abstract: The effects of sodium carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) on the mechanical and sensory properties of kappa carrageenan (KC)-based gummy confections as well as the possible mechanism for improved properties were investigated. The results suggested that adding 20% CMC to the confections could improve texture and sensory properties to form a sample with appropriate hardness and pleasing sense of juiciness. Higher CMC concentrations led to a sharp decrease in hardness and a sense of stickiness. Gel models containing different proportions of KC and CMC were prepared to examine the possible mechanism for CMC’s effects on KC-based gummy confections. The addition of 20% CMC to the KC gel provided a sense of juiciness due to water retention in the gel. The sample had the same moisture content as KC, but weaker bonding of immobile water. However, an increase in CMC concentration (40-60% CMC) led to significant decreases in gel strength and water holding capacity as well as higher mobility of free water molecules. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that higher concentrations of CMC prevented the aggregation of KC molecular chains and loosened the network structure of the KC gel. However, the 20% CMC sample had a slightly denser network structure. Zeta potential results indicated that electrical repulsion was the primary factor leading to the gel structures becoming more heterogeneous. An increase in CMC concentration led to an increase in negative charges. For the 20% CMC sample, the CMC did not damage the dense structure of the KC gel. The crowding effect of CMC may have contributed to the improvement in water holding ability, leading to a sense of juiciness.