Location: Animal Parasitic Diseases LaboratoryTitle: Survival and infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts bioaccumulated by Dreissena polymorpha
|GEBA, ELODIE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
|ROUSSEAU, ANGELIQUE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
|LE GUERNIC, ANTOINE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
|ESCOTTE-BINET, SANDIE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
|FAVENNEC, LOIC - University Of Rouen|
|LA CARBONA, STEPHANIE - Actalia Securite Des Aliment|
|GARGALA, GILLES - University Of Rouen|
|VILLENA, ISABELLE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
|BETOULLE, STEPHANE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
|AUBERT, DOMINIQUE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
|BIGOT-CLIVOT, AURELIE - Universite De Reims Champagne-Ardenne|
Submitted to: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/23/2020
Publication Date: 8/1/2020
Citation: Geba, E., Rousseau, A., Le Guernic, A., Escotte-Binet, S., Favennec, L., La Carbona, S., Gargala, G., Dubey, J.P., Villena, I., Betoulle, S., Aubert, D., Bigot-Clivot, A. 2020. Survival and infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts bioaccumulated by Dreissena polymorpha. Journal of Applied Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14802.
Interpretive Summary: Ingestion of food and water fecally-contaminated with pathogenic protozoa (Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma) can cause severe gastrointestinal disorders in humans and animals. Detection of these protozoans in water or fruits and vegetables is difficult. To overcome this, scientists used a marine bivalve Dreissena polymorpha to monitor water contamination. This approach was chosen because the muscle can concentrate and retain, for weeks, such protozoa, allowing them to provide information about contamination during a prolonged interval. The method was determined to detect even very low levels of contamination. This research was completed in 2019, before closure of Toxoplasma research at USDA. These findings will be of interests to public health workers, water quality officials, biologists, epidemiologists, and parasitologists.
Technical Abstract: To understand the depuration process (degradation and/or release in water) of oocysts by zebra mussel, two experiments were performed: (1) in tubo exposure to investigate oocyst transfers between bivalves and water and (2) in vivo exposure to assess the ability of zebra mussel to degrade oocysts. Results: (1) Our results highlighted a transfer of oocysts from the mussels to the water after 3 and 7 days of depuration, however some of oocysts were still bioaccumulated in mussel’s tissues. (2) Between 7 days of exposure at 1,000 or 10,000 oocysts/mussel/day and 7 days of depuration, the number of bioaccumulated oocysts did not vary but the number of infectious oocysts decreased. Conclusion: Results suggested a degradation of T. gondii oocysts by D. polymorpha. Few C. parvum oocysts were detected in tissues therefore no conclusion could be reached as to degradation of oocysts or their release into the water and (pseudo)faeces. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlighted the potential use of D. polymorpha as bioremediation tool in term of protozoan contamination in freshwater.