Location: Livestock Issues ResearchTitle: Some aspects of the acute phase immune response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge are mitigated by supplementation with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in weaned beef calves
|Carroll, Jeffery - Jeff Carroll|
|EDRINGTON, TOM - Diamond V Mills, Inc|
|YOON, ILKYU - Diamond V Mills, Inc|
|BELKNAP, CRAIG - Diamond V Mills, Inc|
Submitted to: Translational Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/14/2020
Publication Date: 8/24/2020
Citation: Sanchez, N.C., Carroll, J.A., Broadway, P.R., Edrington, T., Yoon, I., Belknap, C.R. 2020. Some aspects of the acute phase immune response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge are mitigated by supplementation with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in weaned beef calves. Translational Animal Science. txaa156. https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txaa156.
Interpretive Summary: There continues to be pressure on livestock producers by consumers and federal legislation to reduce and remove antimicrobials from feedstuffs and to produce cattle using more “natural” means, which includes halting the use of synthetic supplements. Thus, viable alternatives to traditional management practices are needed that allow producers to maintain performance and health while helping align with consumer demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products are prebiotics that have been demonstrated to improve cattle performance, but studies on immune function are limited. A study was conducted by scientists from the Livestock Issues Research Unit and Diamond V to determine the effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on the immune response to a pathogenic toxin. Data from this study show that the fermentation product was able to stimulate aspects of the immune system, resulting in a reduced inflammatory response to the pathogenic toxin. Thus, this fermentation product may be a viable alternative to improve immunity in calves. This information will be of interest to cattle producers, veterinarians, and scientists interested in the alternatives to antimicrobials.
Technical Abstract: This study was conducted to determine if feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) to calves would reduce the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Crossbred steer calves (n = 32; 274 ± 2 kg BW) were randomly allotted to two treatment diets for 21 d: 1) Control, fed a standard receiving ration, and 2) SCFP, fed the Control ration supplemented with NaturSafe at 12 g/hd/d mixed into the TMR (NaturSafe®, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA). On d 22, steers were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters and rectal temperature monitoring devices and placed in individual bleeding stalls. On d 23 steers were challenged i.v. with 0.25 µg/kg BW LPS. Blood samples were collected at 0.5-h (serum) or 2-h (complete blood counts) intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to the LPS challenge at 0 h. Sickness behavior scores (SBS) were recorded after collection of each blood sample. Rectal temperatures were greater in SCFP steers from 6 to 11 h, at 13 h, from 15 to 20 h, and from 22 to 24 h following the LPS challenge compared to Control steers (treatment × time: P = 0.01). Additionally, SCFP-supplemented steers had reduced (P < 0.01) SBS compared to Control steers. Platelet concentrations remained greater in SCFP-supplemented steers compared to Control steers throughout the study (P = 0.05), while there was a tendency (P = 0.09) for SCFP steers to have greater white blood cells and eosinophils than Control steers. There was a treatment × time interaction for serum cortisol and glucose (P < 0.01). Specifically, cortisol was greater at 0.5 and 2 h post-challenge but was reduced at 3 h for SCFP steers compared to Control steers. Glucose was greater in SCFP steers at -0.5, 2, and 7.5 h compared to Control steers. Serum amyloid A was reduced in SCFP steers at 0.5 h, yet greater at 1 and 7.5 h post-challenge compared to Control steers (treatment × time: P < 0.01). Fibrinogen concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) in SCFP compared to Control steers. There was a treatment × time interaction (P < 0.01) for TNF-a such that concentrations were reduced in SCFP steers from 1 to 2 h post-challenge compared to Control steers. Overall these data suggest that supplementing calves with SCFP may have primed the innate immune response prior to the challenge, particularly the immune cell populations, which resulted in an attenuated sickness behavior and the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to LPS.