Location: Animal Parasitic Diseases LaboratoryTitle: Editorial: Immunoparasitology: A unique interplay between host and pathogen
|SUO, XUN - China Agricultural University|
|WU, ZHIGUANG - University Of Edinburgh|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Immunology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/16/2020
Publication Date: 5/7/2020
Citation: Suo, X., Wu, Z., Lillehoj, H.S., Tuo, W. 2020. Editorial: Immunoparasitology: A unique interplay between host and pathogen. Frontiers in Immunology. 11:880. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00880.
Interpretive Summary: An issue (Research Topic) for the journal of Frontier in Immunology was edited with a total 31 articles. This Editorial attempts to give a brief overview of the findings presented by all articles in this Topic, and we hope that these research articles can provide readers a cross-sectional view and status of current research on some of the parasites of medical and veterinary importance. The information is useful to researchers in the medical and veterinary fields.
Technical Abstract: This Research Topic, Immunoparasitology: A unique interplay between host and pathogen, was intended to emphasize broadly the latest advances in immunoparasitology and has been concluded with more than 30 high quality papers encompassing aspects of parasite biology, host-parasite responses and interactions, and up-to-date control measures. Such an accomplishment is unattainable without the euthanistic involvement of all contributing authors and participating reviewers and the day-to-day assistance from the staff of Frontiers in Immunology editorial office. This collection contains approximately one third of the articles as reviews and the rest as original research papers, covering multiple parasitic species and their hosts. As expected, two thirds of the papers are focused on protozoan parasites, 50% of which are on Toxoplasma gondii as a model pathogen. The next-most covered parasitic group is parasitic helminths, with 8 papers. At the time this Editorial was submitted for publication, this Research Topic achieved over 70,000 online views, with average views per article of greater than 2000 since publication. The most viewed article covers the popular and important subject of co-infection (Mabbott). The author emphasizes the fact that co-infection is a common occurrence in the field situation, where malarial parasites, soil-transmitted helminths, bacteria and viruses are the causes for chronic infections in a large population. Ample examples of co-infection are described, where existing infections by parasites can have a dramatic influence on host susceptibility and/or disease pathogenesis. The impact of co-infection on disease diagnosis, vaccine development, and host resistance warrants further investigation. The findings of Djokic et al. demonstrate specifically how co-infection by Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, both tick-borne pathogens, influences age-dependent immune responses and disease outcomes. Additional review articles cover protozoa and helminths, representing up-to-date advances in research. Maurya et al., reviewed leptin function in infectious diseases. Leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is important in resistance to diseases as it is emerging as a key regulator in both immunity and nutrition (Maurya et al.). Malaria and trypanosomiasis are not extensively covered in this issue, particularly in original research. Research progress for these two diseases is nonetheless summarized by several in-depth reviews. Lee et al. reviewed recent advances in the complex cytoadhesive interactions between Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and other host cells, and how such cytoadherence may contribute to malaria pathogenesis. In malaria, B cell-mediated, antibody-dependent protection may depend on and be achieved by proper B cell activation and optimal interactions among antigen-specific and antibody-secreting B cells with T helper cells and cytokines (Silveira et al). Several major species of trypanosomes are involved in causing the pathogenic trypanosomiasis worldwide, profoundly affecting the wellbeing and immunocompetency of humans and animals. To date, there is no vaccine against trypanosomiasis, although the parasite can elicit detectable immune responses in the host. The difficulty in developing a protective vaccine appears to be that the parasites have evolved to evade the host immune surveillance by genetic exchange among the parasites, acquisition of resistant genotypes in the insect vector, and plasticity in adaptation in the new environment (Radwanska et al.). One of the approaches to understanding differential host responses is through investigating routes of transmission. de Albuquerque et al. summarize their recent findings and those of others in comparing host responses and disease outcomes following Trypanosoma cruzi infection through oral or gastrointestinal route. In the Brazil