|SERTEYN, LAURENT - University Of Liege|
|PONNET, LOLA - University Of Liege|
|FRANCIS, FREDERIC - University Of Liege|
Submitted to: Arthropod-Plant Interactions
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/27/2019
Publication Date: 10/19/2019
Citation: Serteyn, L., Ponnet, L., Backus, E.A., Francis, F. 2019. Characterization of electropenetrography waveforms for the invasive heteropteran pest, Halyomorpha halys, on Vicia faba leaves. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 14:113-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11829-019-09722-y.
Interpretive Summary: Native to northeastern Asia, brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an aggressive invasive species that has become established in North America and recently introduced into Europe. BMSB feeds on over 300 hosts, especially horticultural and ornamental plants. On all of its known hosts, BMSB feeds on leaves, stems, and mature reproductive structures, causing direct feeding damage to fleshy fruits, including tomatoes, peppers, bean pods, apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, grapes, and many other vegetables and fruits. Improvement of insecticidal control and development of alternative pest management methods such as host plant resistance depends upon understanding feeding behaviors and causes of damage to crop plants. The most rigorous method for such studies is electropenetrography (EPG). BMSB feeding behavior was analyzed and compared with five other EPG studies that identified and defined waveforms from related species of stink bugs. BMSB waveforms consisted of epidermal scanning, pathway of stylets through leaf tissue, cell rupturing, X waves, and sustained ingestion from xylem, likely phloem, and parenchyma/mesophyll enzymatic macerate. Evidence supports that BMSB is the first known stink bug to use both hemipteran feeding strategies and three food sources (phloem, xylem, and parenchyma macerate). This feeding flexibility potentially explains why BMSB is such a successful pest on so many crop plants and provides a basis for future host plant resistance studies.
Technical Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys Stål, has dispersed throughout the northern hemisphere, causing disturbances in agroecosystems and urban areas. Studies are, therefore, needed on the biology, physiology, and ecology of BMSB. This project characterized and partially correlated (via histology of plant tissues) the DC electropenetrography (EPG) waveforms related to non-probing (NP and Z) and both salivary sheath and cell rupture feeding. BMSB feeding behaviors were analyzed in comparison with five other EPG waveform characterization papers published to date for heteropteran insects. Waveforms consisted of epidermal scanning (Hh1), pathway of stylets through leaf tissue (Hh2), X waves (Hh3), and sustained vascular ingestion (Hh4). In addition, a cell-rupturing phase in mesophyll (Hh2) and putative ingestion of resulting macerate (Hh5) were characterized. The most striking results were: 1) similarities of waveforms with other heteropterans, 2) performance of both sheath and cell rupture feeding strategies from all three plant cell types (xylem, likely phloem, and parenchyma macerate) on the same plant part, and 3) two different-appearing, dual-meaning X waves according to ingestion from xylem (Hh3a) or likely from phloem (Hh3b). This study provides a crucial framework for future, quantitative research on feeding behavior of this important invasive pest, to aid in development of novel pest management tools such as host plant resistance and improved chemical control.